Biology - Digestive System

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  • Created by: Jasmin3
  • Created on: 29-04-18 13:31
What are specialised cells?
Cells that carry out a particular function.
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How are cells specialised?
By diffrentiation, development of cells.
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What forms an organ system?
Tissues form organs, many of these create an organ system.
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What are large multicellular organisms?
They have different systems for exchanging and transporting materials.
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What is a tissue?
A group of similar cells that work together for a particular function.
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What is the role of muscular tissue?
To contact, to move when it's attached to.
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What is the role of the glandular tissue?
Makes and secretes chemicals like enzymes and hormones.
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What is the role of the epithelial tissue?
Covers the outside and inside of the stomach.
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In the digestive system, what is the role of the glands?
e.g the pancreas and salivary glands, produces digestive juices.
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In the digestive system, what is the role of the stomach and small intestines?
They digest food.
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In the digestive system, what is the role of the liver?
It produces bile.
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In the digestive system, what is the role of the small intestine?
It absorbs soluble food molecules.
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In the digestive system, what is the role of large intestine?
Abrobes water from undigested food and leaves faeces.
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What is a catalyst?
A substance that increases the speed of a reaction without changing it or being used up.
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What is a biological catalyst? Give an example.
Enzymes, natural ones found in the boy without being produced by a lab.
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What are enzymes made of?
Large proteins made up of chains of amino acids, folded into unique shapes.
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Explain the 'lock and key' theory.
Enzymes are a specific shape, they can only catalyse one specific reaction. The substrate must fit the active site to work.
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What is an 'induced fit' enzyme?
When the active site chnages shape whihc means a tighter fit in the substrate.
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Explain how temperature effects enzymes.
A higher temperature increases the rate of the enzymes and then the reaction. However if it is too hot, the bonds between enzymes break, making them denatured.
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Explain how pH can effect enzymes.
If pH is too high or too low it denatures the enzymes by breaking bonds. It is normally pH 7 (neutral) but protease enzymes are pH 2 like the acid in stomach.
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In the enzymes experiment, how do you measure the rate of reaction?
Rate of Reaction = 1000/ Time (s)
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Name 3 big molecules.
Starch, proteins and fats.
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What are starch, protein and fats broken down into?
Glycerol, Amino Acids and Fatty Acids
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Why are the big molecules broken down into smaller ones?
They are smaller, soluble and can easily pass through the digestive system.
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What enzyme breaks down starch? Where is this made?
Amylase- made in Salivary Glands, Pancreas or Small Intestine.
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What enzyme breaks down protiens? Where is this made?
Protease- Made in Stoach, Pancreas and Small Intestine.
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What enzyme breaks down fats? Where is this made?
Lipase- Made in pancreas and Small Intestine.
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How does bile help the digestive system?
It is alkaline so neutralises the hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
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How does bile work on fat?
It emulsifies fat - breaks it into tiny droplets for a bigger surface area.
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Where is bile stored and kept?
Stored in the gall bladder and released into the small intestine.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How are cells specialised?

Back

By diffrentiation, development of cells.

Card 3

Front

What forms an organ system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are large multicellular organisms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a tissue?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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