digestion, heart, osmosis, diffusion , blood

  • Created by: Eleanor_A
  • Created on: 17-04-18 20:00
What is the importance of digestion?
To break down large molecules into smaller, soluble ones to be absorbed into the body and bloodstream.
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Where is protease made?
In the stomach, pancreas and small intestine.
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What is the substrate molecule that the enzyme protease acts on?
Protein
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What is the product made after the enzyme protease acts on protein?
Amino acids
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What is an enzyme?
A biological catalyst to speed up chemical reasctions.
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Which enzyme breaks down carbohydrates?
Carbohydrase
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Give an example of an carbohydrase
Amylase
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Where is amylase produced?
In the pancreas, salivary glands and small intestine.
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What is the substrate that amylase acts on?
Starch molecules.
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What is formed after amylase breaks down starch molecules.
Glucose
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Which enzyme breaks down lipids?
Lipids
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What does lipid form?
Fatty acis and glycerol
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Why does the stomach contain hydrochloric acid?
To kill harmful bacteria and sterilise food.
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What is the optimum temperature for enzymes to work at?
37 degrees.
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What fits into the actives site in an enzyme?
A substrate
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What factors effect how effectively enzymes work?
pH, temperature, pressure, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration.
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How can a high temperature lead to denaturation?
There is excessive heat vibrating the ab=toms which puts a strain on bonds and breaks them meaning the actiove site changes shape so the substrate won't fit.
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Why won'y amylase break down lipids?
Because enzymes are specific as their actives sites are complimentary shaped to specific molecules.
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Where is bile stored and produced?
Bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
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What is the main function of bile?
Emulsification. This means breaking down lipids into smaller droplets of lipid so there is a larger surface area for lipase to work on.
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Give another function of bile.
It has an alkaline pH which neutralises hydrochloric acid and provides an optimun pH for enzymes in the small intestine.
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What is peristalsis?
The rhythmic contraction of the muscle behind a bolus to push it along.
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What is the name given to a lump of food along your digestive system?
A bolus
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What is the function of the liver in the digestive system?
To produce enzymes such as amylase, protease and lipase.
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How are villi adapted to maximise diffusion in the small intestine?
They have a large surface area to volume ration so more molecules/ nutrients can diffuse into the blood stream. Their walls are only one cell thick to reduce the time it takes for molecules to diffuse through villi.
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What is the first stage of cell division?
DNA replication to form 2 copies of each chromosomes. The parent cell grows and copies other organelles as well e.g mitochondria.
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What is the second stage of cell division?
Mitosis.
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What is the process of mitosis?
The chromosomes line up along the centre of the cell and separate into chromotids and move to opposite poles. Then 2 new identical daughter cells are formed with the same genes and number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
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What is the function of the aorta?
To carry oygenated blood at a high pressure around the body.
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On the left side of your heart, what carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart?
Pulmonary vein
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Why does the left side of the heart have thicker muscular wall than the right?
It has to pump blood further around the body?
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What system is the heart part of?
Circulatory system.
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What is the function of the pulmonary artery?
To carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
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What does the vena cava do?
Receives deoxygenated blood from the body.
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What does the right atrium and right ventricle do?
Receive deoxygenated bloof from the body and pump it to the pulmonary artery.
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What do the left atrium and left ventricle do?
Pump oxygenated blood to the aorta.
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Which blood vessel has the thickest walls and why?
Artery to cope with high blood pressures as it carries blood away from the heart.
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Why do veins have valves?
To prevent the backflow of blood as there is a low blood pressuer, blooding is travelling against gravity and they transport blood to the heart.
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Why are capillaries one cell thick?
Their permeable walls allow the exchange of materials.
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What is the funcion of blood plasma?
To transport dissolved food matierals such as proteins and waste products e.g C02, antibodies, hormones and urea.
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How do platelets form a scab?
1. release chemicals called clotting factors 2. they turn fibrogen into fibrin 3. forms a mesh and acts as a glue to help stick platelets together to forma scab
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What is suspended in platelets?
Plasma, red blood cells and white blood cells.
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What is the function of white blood cells?
To destroy invading pathogens.
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Name the 2 types of white blood cells.
Phagocytes and lymphacytes
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What do phagocytes do?
Engulf patogens and use enzymes to break them down.
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What do lymphocytes do?
Produce antibodies to help clump together pathogens for phagocytes to destroy.
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How are red blood cells adapted?
Biconcave- large surface area for diffusion and they have no nucleus- more room for haemolglobin.
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What is the function of red blood cells?
Move through arteries and capillaries to deliver oxygen to organs and tissues.
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What do red contain and what does it do?
Haemolglobin and it is aprotein that can temporarily bind with oxygen to form oxyhaemolglobin to carry it around your body.
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What is osmosis?
The diffusio of water through a partially permeable membrane from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution, going down the concentration gradient. It results in an equilibriem and is a passive process.
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How can you maximise diffusion?
Increase the temparure because particles will gain more kinetic energy and diffuse quicker. Have a larger surface area to volume ration as more particles can diffuse at once. Have a bigger concentration gradient.
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What is an everyday example of diffusion?
Gas exchange in our lungs.
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What is diffusion?
The net movement of particles from a high concentration to a lower concentartion going down the concentration gradient so it is a passive process.
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What is active transport?
The diffusion of particles across a partially permeable membrane against the concentation gradient so it requires energy.
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If active transport requires energy, where does the energy come from?
Mitochondria- where aerobic respiration occurs.
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Give an example of active transport
Mineral ions in plants.
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Fill in the gaps: cell, nucleus, ..................................., gene,...................
cell, nucleus, chromosome, gene , DNA
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What is the structure of DNA?
A double helix.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where is protease made?

Back

In the stomach, pancreas and small intestine.

Card 3

Front

What is the substrate molecule that the enzyme protease acts on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the product made after the enzyme protease acts on protein?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is an enzyme?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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