Biology Component 3 - 3.3 Adaptations for Nutrition

Developed from the resources provided by Peter Symonds College

There are lots of flashcards, just to ensure that everything is covered for any eventuality in the exams

Define Autotroph
Use simple inorganic materials to manufacture complex organic compounds
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Define Photoautotroph
Use light energy to convert simple inorganic molecules into complex organic ones; plants and some bacteria can photosynthesise
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Define Chemoautotroph
Use the energy derived from oxidation (hydrogen sulfide/sulfur/ferrous ions nitrites) to convert simple inorganic molecules into complex organic ones
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Define Heterotroph
Consumes complex organic food material
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Define Holozoic (nearly all animals)
Food is taken into the body and ingested; many have specialised digestive system, food is absorbed by the body (carnivores, omnivores, herbivores, detritivores (taking into the body))
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Define Saprophytes (all fungi and some bacteria)
Feed on dead and decaying matter, no specialised system, extracellular digestion; a decomposer is a microscopic saprotroph
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Define Parasitic (obtains nutrition from another living organism and cause it harm)
Live on/in the host, parasites are highly specialised and show adaptations to their lifestyle (i.e. Tapeworms)
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How do unicellular organisms such as Amoeba gain nutrition?
Amoeba are holozoic feeders; large SA:vol ratio; obtain nutrients by facilitated diffusion or Active Transport; large molecules taken in by endocytosis (lysosomes fuse to digest); products digested into cytoplasm/indigestible material is egested
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How do multicellular organisms such as Hydra catch their nutrition?
Ectoderm and endoderm separated by jelly layer containing nerve fibres; cylindrical with tentacles at top to surround mouth; live in fresh water attached to leaves/twigs; nematocysts discharge a barb to paralyse prey
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How do multicellular organisms such as Hydra digest their nutrition?
Endodermal cells secrete protease and lipase and the prey is digested extracellularyl; products absorbed into cell; indigestivle material is egested through the mouth
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Why do larger more complex organisms such as humans require a more complex digestive system?
Varied diet
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Explain saprotrophic nutrition
All fungi and some types of bacteria; feed on dead/decaying matter; have no specialised system for digesting; undergo extracellular digestion to digest nutrients
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Define decomposer
A microscopic saprotroph that feeds off dead and decaying matter, or a detritavore
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What is the function of the Salivary Glands?
Produce Saliva
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What is the function of the Oesophagus?
Carries food from the mouth to the stomach
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What is the function of the Stomach?
Produces hydrochloric acid
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What is the function of the Pyloric Sphincter Muscle?
Controls amount of food leaving the stomach
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What is the function of the Duodenum?
Receives juices from the gall bladder and pancreas
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What is the function of the Ileum?
Where most digested food is absorbed
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What is the function of the Bile Duct?
Takes bile from the Gall Bladder to the Duodenum
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What is the function of the Pancreas?
Produces enzymes which pass into the Duodenum
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What is the function of the Gall Bladder?
Stores bile
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What is the function of the Colon?
Where most water is absorbed
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What is the function of the Rectum?
Stores waste faeces for several hours
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What is the function of the Anus?
Controls the passing of faeces
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Describe the Structure of the Gut Wall (interior to exterior)
Lumen; Mucosa; Sub Mucosa; Circular Muscle; Longitudinal Muscle; Serosa
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Describe the Structure of the Small Intestine (bottom to top)
Serosa (tough connective tissue to protect gut wall); Longitudinal muscle; Circular muscle (contract and relax for peristalsis); Sub Mucosa (blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, glands); Muscularis Mucose (moves villi); Mucosa (glands/mucus); Villus
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What is the job of the Oxyntic Cells?
Epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
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What is the job of Goblet Cells?
Secrete mucus in order to protect the mucous membranes; secrete mucins, large glycoproteins formed mostly by carbohydrates
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What is the job of Muscularis?
Important for either maintaining peristalsis or the digestive functions of the gut
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Describe absorption in the Ileum (up to transfer via thoracic duct)
Fatty acids/glycerol diffuse across membrane; enter SER, synthesised to form triglycerides; packed into vesicles with phospholipids/cholesterol; lipids from cells to lacteals by exocytosis; travels in lymphatic system; goes to sub-clavian vein
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Define Ingestion
Large food particles are taken into the mouth & brokendown by the action of teeth, saliva, and the tongue (mastication), so that it may move into the gut (example of mechanical digestion)
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Define Digestion
Chemical breakdown (enzymes) of large food molecules to small, soluble molecules
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Define Absorption
Small, soluble food molecules move from the small intestine into the blood stream, which transports them to the cells.
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Define Egestion (elimination)
Undigested food moves out of the body as faeces, via the colon, rectum, and anus
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Define Physical (mechanical) Digestion
Crushing action of teeth; action of stomach; peristaltic action of muscular layers in gutwall (this is a muscular action which pounds the food into a semi-solid state; mechanical digestion increases surface area of the food over, chemical digestion)
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Summarise Carbohydrate Digestion
Polysaccharides (Amylose using Amylase); Disaccharides (Maltose using Maltase); Monosaccharides (Glucose)
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Summarise Lipid Digestion
Lipids (using Lipase); Fatty Acids & Glycerol
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Detail the following for Saliva: Site of Production - Site of Action - Enzyme - Substrate - Product/s
Salivary Glands - Mouth - Amylase - Starch - Maltose
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Detail the following for Gastric Juice: Site of Production - Site of Action - Enzyme - Substrate - Product/s
Gastric Glands - Stomach - Endopeptidase (Pepsinogen to Pepsin) - Protein - Polypeptides
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Detail the following for Pancreatic Juice: Site of Production - Site of Action - Enzyme - Substrate - Product/s
Pancreas - Lumen of the Duodenum - Amylase/Endopeptidases [Trypsinogen to Trypsin]/Exopeptidases/Lipase - Starch/Protein/Polypeptides/Lipids - Maltose/Polypeptides/Dipeptides/Fatty Acids and Glycerol
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Detail the following for Bile: Site of Production - Site of Action - Enzyme - Substrate - Product/s
Liver - Lumen of Duodenum - N/A - N/A - Emulsified Lipids
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Detail the following for Intracellular Enzymes: Site of Production - Site of Action - Enzyme - Substrate - Product/s
Duodenum and Ileum - Intracellular - Maltase/Dipeptidases - Maltose/Dipeptidases - Glucose/Amino Acids
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Describe what Peristalsis is
A series of rhythmic contractions to move the bolus to the stomach
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What are the functions of Bile?
1: Emulsifies Lipids into smaller droplets to increase Surface area of the droplets which increase rate of digestion; 2: Acids in neutralising the stomach acid as it enters the duodenum with the food
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What is the Duodenum?
The first 20cm of the Small Intestine to receive secretions from the liver and the pancreas; Brunner's Glands in the Sub Mucosa of the Duodenum secretes mucus for lubrication and protection/alkaline juice which helps maintain the optimum pH
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What is the Ileum?
Carbohydrate and Protein digestion is completed by enzymes fixed in the membrane of the epithelial cells of the mucosa; secrete by cells at the base of the villus; maltase = maltose to 2 alpha glucose; dipeptidase = dipeptides to Amino Acids
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What is the Buccal Cavity?
Food is broken up into small pieces in the buccal cavity (mouth) by the chewing action of the teeth (mastication - mechanical digestion); moistened by saliva
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What are the contents of Saliva?
1: Water (99.5%), mineral salts (alkali conditions), mucus (lubricant), lysozyme (enzyme to kill bacteria), mechanical breakdown and the food is now a bolus; 2: Salivary Amylase to convert starch to glycogen to maltose (pH of 6.5-7.5 for Saliva)
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Describe the structure of the Stomach
Ridges called rugae to help with mechanical breakdown of food; muscles found at the upper/lower ends of the stomach: cardiac sphincter (relaxes at the upper end to allow food to enter)/pyloric sphincter (relaxes to allow food to exit)
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What is the function of the Chief Cells?
Secrete endopeptidase enzyme/pepsin which hydrolyses protein to smaller peptides; Pepsin secreted in an inactive form by chief cells - activated by Hydrochloric Acid into Pepsin
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Describe the Pancreas
The exocrine glands in the pancreas secrete pancreatic juice; this juice enters the duodenum via the pancreatic duct
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What enzymes are included in the Pancreatic Juice?
Endopeptidases (hydrolyses protein to polypeptides [Trypsin which is secreted in an inactive form called trypsinogen which is activated by enterokinase]); exopetidases (hydrolyses terminal ends of a polypeptide to dipeptide); amylase; lipase
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How many teeth do human have?
32
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What is the function of the lower incisors in herbivores/carnivores?
Sharp and Broad for Cropping/Sharp and Thin for Nipping and Biting
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What is the function of the canine/diastema in carnivores/herbivores?
Pointed for Grasping/Allows efficient action of tongue
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What are the functions of the premolars and molars in a herbivore/carnivore?
Heavily rigid for Crushing and Grinding/Adapted for Cutting
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Why do carnivores have a tight jaw hinge and herbivores have loose?
Carnivores - focused biting point; Herbivores - allows more complex movements
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Compare the movement of the jaw between carnivores and herbivores
Herbivores - horizontal for grinding down vegetation; Carnivores - vertical to tear meat and avoid dislocation.
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What is the purpose of Endopeptidase?
Hydrolyses the peptide bond in the central regions of a polypeptide chain; Prevents auto-lysis of the proteins in the cell wall.
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What happens during deamination?
NH3 is removed from an amino acid to form urea.
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What is the fate of Carbohydrates?
Glucose is used for aerobic respiration; excess glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle cells (to be excreted as urine); stores as fat when full.
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What is the fate of Proteins?
Amino Acids are used for protein synthesis; excess cannot be stored and are deaminated.
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What is the purpose of the Carboxyl Group in humans?
Used in respiration as a substrate - stored as fat if not used.
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What is the fate of Lipids?
Used to make phospholipids, cholesterol, hormones and steroids; stored as fat in adipose tissue; protects organs, insulates, energy store; excess stored in sub-cataneous layer or around organs
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Explain how rabbits would be able to detect nutritional difference between the types of faeces
Tastes/smells sweeter.
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How are tapeworms transferred and developed?
Gravid Proglottids develop in Pig Muscle - People infected by eating raw/uncooked meat containing cysticerci - Cysticerci develop - Adult Tapework develop in small intestine - Gravid Segments passed in Faeces - Pigs become infected eating vegetation
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Who is the definitive and the intermediate host of Tapeworm between Humans and Pigs?
Humans - Definitive Host | Pigs - Intermediate Host
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What benefit do the hooks and suckers on the Scolex (Head) provide to Tapeworm?
Attaches to the Duodenum wall, the first 25cm of the small intestine
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What benefit does the lack of circulatory/digestive/gas exchange organs provide to Tapeworm?
Allows for direct gas/food exchange to the parasite, increasing functionality and rate of exchange.
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What benefit does the long flattened body provide to Tapeworm?
Allows the host's food to move past it, meaning that it can absorb some of it from the Small Intestine
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What benefit does the body covered in cuticle provide to Tapeworm?
Secretes anti-enzyme to prevent digestion by the enzymes from the host.
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What benefit do the proglottids (reproductive structure) provide to Tapeworm?
40,000 eggs per mature segment are produced, whilst each tapeworm is made up of male and female sex organs to allow for reproduction.
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What benefit does the larval stage provide to Tapeworm?
Can survive out of the host for long periods of time; allows for infection of secondary hosts and vegetation.
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What benefit does the secondary host provide to Tapeworm?
Required to allow tapeworm to alternate between primary and secondary (human and pig); eggs hatch in the secondary host to allow spread of disease.
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What Phylum do tapeworms belong?
Platyhelminthes
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What two simple precautions can be taken to avoid infection by the pork tapeworm?
Ensure food is cooked properly to avoid infection; wash all fruit and vegetables before eating them
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What is the difference between an ectoparasite and an endoparasite?
Endoparasites live inside the body of the host, whereas ectoparasites live on the outer surface of the host and generally attach themselves during feeding.
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Describe how endoparasites are adapted to reduce the risk of being dislodged from their habitats?
Endoprasites have a scolex with muscle attaching hooks and suckers - they are long with a thick cuticle to prevent digestion.
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Describe how ectoparasites are adapted to reduce the risk of being dislodged from their habitats?
Ectoparasites feed on blood, and have poor adaptations to walking/jumping; they die of taken away from a host.
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Define the term parasite
An organism that can invade a host, requiring the host for survival, whilst being transferred; it can live peacefully in your body, but may have the potential to be fatal.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define Photoautotroph

Back

Use light energy to convert simple inorganic molecules into complex organic ones; plants and some bacteria can photosynthesise

Card 3

Front

Define Chemoautotroph

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define Heterotroph

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define Holozoic (nearly all animals)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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