Biology Component 3 - 3.2 Animal Transport

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Define Open Circulatory System
The blood does not move around the body in blood vessels but it bathes the tissues directly whilst held in a cavity (i.e. insects)
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Define Closed Circulatory System
The blood moves in blood vessels (Earthworm, Fish, Mammal)
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Define Single Circulatory System
The blood moves through the heart once in its passage around the body
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Define Double Circulatory System
The blood passes through the heart twice in its circuit (left and right side)
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What artery and vein join the head to the heart?
Carotid Artery/Jugular Vein (no valves)
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What artery and vein link the liver to the heart?
Hepatic Artery/Hepatic Vein
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What artery and vein link the gut to the heart?
Mesentric Artery/Hepatic Vein (via. Hepatic Portal Vein)
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What artery and vein link the kidneys to the heart?
Renal Artery/Renal Vein
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What artery and vein link the reproductive organs to the heart?
Genital Artery/Genital Vein
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What artery and vein link the legs to the heart?
Iliac Artery/Iliac Vein
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What are the layers of a large artery?
Tunica Exteria/Externa, Tunica Media, Tunica Interia/Interna (Endothelium), Lumen
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Explain why the walls of arteries need to be thick with a lot of elastic tissue
They have to withstand a very high pressure of blood flow through from the heart (elastic recoil/stretch)
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Explain why arterioles lack an elastic layer
There is a lower pressure of blood in the arterioles as it is further from the heart
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Explain the purpose of the smooth muscle in artery walls
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation to control pressure (controlled by the thermoregulatory gland)
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Describe the muscle and elastic tissue thickness in a vein
Muscles and elastic tissue is much thicker in the arteries than in the veins (thinner)
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Describe the size of the lumen inside of the vein vessel
Bigger in a vein than in an artery (more can flow at once)
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Explain the role of the valves in assisting the veins to return blood back to the heart
To stop the blood travelling in the wrong direction - backflow
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Describe an artery
Carry blood from heart; thick/muscular walls; branch into arterioles (branch into capillaries); arterioles can do vasodilation and vasoconstriction
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Describe a capillary
Penetrate all tissues and organs; one cell thick; used for diffusion of gases; blood collects in venules from capillaries
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Describe a vein
Large lumen; thinner walls with less muscle; semi-lunar valves to prohibit backflow (can cause varicose veins and heart failure if their fail)
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What does the left anterior descending coronary artery supply?
Supplies the cardiac muscle with O2 and Glucose for contraction - can ONLY contract and relax
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What is Systole?
The contraction of the cardiac muscle (can be atrial or ventricular)
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What is Diastole?
The relaxation of the cardiac muscle
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Describe a heart beat
Diastole (blood enters the atria from the vena cava and pulmonary vein (venuous return); atrial systole (blood into ventricles); ventricular systole (blood up through pulmonary artery/aorta)
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What does it mean when the lines on a heart activity trace cross?
The opening/closing of a valve
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What is the Cardiac Cycle?
The Cardiac Muscle can only contract or relax, which changes the volume and pressure in the chambers of the hearts - blood always moves from a high to low blood pressure, valves close to prevent backflow of blood
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What does the term "Myogenic" mean?
Muscle contractions initiated within the muscle itself
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Where is the Sino Atrial Node located?
Top of the right atrium (heart's internal pacemaker)
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How does the heart beat?
Sino Atrial Node initiates wave of excitation (electrical impulse); spreads over walls of atria (atrial systole); wave reaches Atrio Ventricular Node (delays impulse to finish systole); travels down Bundle of His up through Purkyne Fibres from apex
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What stops the wave of excitation from crossing over to the ventricular chambers?
Non-conductive connective tissue prevents the wave of excitation moving directly from the atrium to the ventricle
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What sound does a heartbeat make?
"Lub [atrioventricular valves closing] Dub [semi-lunar valves closing]"
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What is the diagnosis of a ventricular fibrillation?
Heart Attack
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What is the diagnosis of damaged Purkinje Fibres?
Heart Block - Atria and Ventricles are contracting independently
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What is the diagnosis of atrial fibrillation?
Cardiac Arrhythmia (irregular impulses from Sinoatrial Node)
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Why are there gaps in the capillary wall?
Allows Plasma to enter the tissue fluid (containing O2, glucose, amino acids) and for waste products to leave (CO2 and urea); 98%-99% return to venules.
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Describe the formation of tissue fluid
Hydrostatic pressure higher at arteriole end, water potential of blood lower than tissue fluid (water enters), net movement of fluid is OUT of the capillaries
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Describe the removal process of waste products from tissue fluid
Hydrostatic pressure lower at venule end, water potential of blood higher than tissue fluid so water will enter blood by osmosis, osmotic pressure greater than that of the hydrostatic pressure, net movement is INTO the capillary by diffusion
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Arrange the following in order of average velocity of blood: aorta, venule, capillary, vein
Aorta, Vein, Venule, Capillary
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Explain two ways in which the blood vessels in the body wall of an earthworm will help it to absorb oxygen
Short Diffusion Pathway (less resistance), Blood vessels link directly to the body wall (maximises transfer)
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Explain how the valves ensure that blood flows in one direction only
Open in one direction; blood gathers behind valve when closing to prevent backflow; muscles contract to force blood through; valves only open when blood is flowing in the desired direction
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List the components of a Blood Cell
Erythrocyte (Biconcave and no nucleus to increase SA for more haemoglobin; transport of O2 and CO2 in blood [globular protein and Quaternary structure]); White Blood Cells (B,T Lymphocytes contain antibodies; phagocytes (macrophages, neutrophils)
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List the features of Plasma
Transport (Hormones, O2, Water, Glucose, Ions, Fibrinogen, Amino Acids, Urea (WASTE), CO2 (WASTE); Large Plasma Proteins; HEAT
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What is the purpose of Platlets?
Clotting Factors
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What is plasma?
A pale yellow liquid made up of 90% water, containing solutes, amino acids, waste products, hormones, and large plasma proteins
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A human body has 5 litres of blood. 40% of which is red blood cells. each red blood cell has a volume of approximately 9x10^-14 litres. How many red blood cells are there in the human body?
40% of 5l = 2l; 2/9x10^-14 = 2.2x10^13
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What is a feature of low oxygen ppO2?
Haemoglobin cannot easily take up oxygen
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What happens at a medium oxygen ppO2?
Changes in the shape of the Haemoglobin makes it easier for more O2 to associate (haem groups now on the outside of the structure);
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What is a feature of high oxygen ppO2?
Difficult for the last O2 to associate with the 4th haem group, so it never reaches 100% saturation (normally around 98%)
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Describe the Bohr Shift
The movement of the oxygen dissociation curve to the right; CO2 reacts with water in the presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase; carbonic acid is formed to split into hydrogen ions and hydrogen carbonate; hydrogen carbonate ions exit into plasma
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What happens when hydrogen carbonate ions exit the red blood cells?
Chloride ions enter; hydrogen ions bind to haemoglobin and dissociate the oxygen as it has a higher affinity for haemoglobin; hydrogen ions bind with haemoglobin to form haemoglobinic acid
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What is the general rule for a dissociation curve to shift to the left?
The more the dissociation curve is displaced to the left the more readily the haemoglobin will associate the oxygen but the less readily it will release it
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Why does myoglobin have a high affinity for oxygen?
It is used as an oxygen store in muscle cells for release to the cells during extreme activity
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What is the partial pressure of oxygen in the placenta?
Low Partial Pressure
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What happens to maternal haemoglobin in the placenta?
The maternal haemoglobin dissociates oxygen into the tissue fluid
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What is the advantage of an increasing partial pressure of carbon dioxide in a muscle?
Increase in production of Hydrogen Ions, which have greater affinity for oxygen, so dissociates O2 from Haemoglobin
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What type of blood vessel has most elastic tissue in its wall?
Artery
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How does the elastic tissue in the artery help to smooth out the flow of blood in the blood vessel?
Allows the artery to expand and recoil depending on the volume of blood flowing through
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define Closed Circulatory System

Back

The blood moves in blood vessels (Earthworm, Fish, Mammal)

Card 3

Front

Define Single Circulatory System

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define Double Circulatory System

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What artery and vein join the head to the heart?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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