Biology - Circulatory System

  • Created by: Jasmin3
  • Created on: 29-04-18 15:24
What is the thorax?
The upper part of your body, seperated by the diaphragm.
1 of 42
How are the lungs protected?
By the ribcage and the pleural membranes.
2 of 42
Where does the air you breathe in go?
Through the trachea that splits into two tubes called bronchi, which go to each lung.
3 of 42
What do the bronchi split into? What do they do/have?
Bronchioles - They have small bags at the end called alveoli where gas exchange happens.
4 of 42
What are alveoli?
Tiny sacks that are surrounded by blood capillaries where gas exchange happens.
5 of 42
What do the alveloi's do?
Oxygen diffuses out of the alveoli into the blood, carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood into the alveoli.
6 of 42
What happens to the carbon dioxide in the alveoli?
It gets breathed out.
7 of 42
What do you calculate Breathing Rate in?
Breaths per minute.
8 of 42
What is the double circulatory system made up of?
Heart, Blood vessels and blood.
9 of 42
What is the hearts role? What is it made up of?
It keeps oxygen pumping round the body. It's made of muscle tissue.
10 of 42
What stops blood flowing in the wrong direction in the heart?
It has valves to stop blood flowing backwards.
11 of 42
What are the four parts of the heart?
Left atrium, Right atrium, Left ventricle, right ventricle.
12 of 42
What is the first stage of the circulatory system?
Blood flows into the two atria from the vena cava and pulmonary vein.
13 of 42
What is the second stage of the circulatory system?
The atria contract and push the blood into the ventricles.
14 of 42
What is the third stage of the circulatory system?
The ventricles contract pushing blood through the pulmonary artery and the aorta into the heart.
15 of 42
What is the fourth stage of the circulatory system?
The blood flows to the organs, through arteries and back to veins. Cycle restarts.
16 of 42
What is a pacemaker?
Something that controls your heart rate by a small electric impulse.
17 of 42
Why might someone need an artifical pacemaker?
If they have an irregular heart beat / health issues.
18 of 42
Which sides of the heart have oxygenated and deoxygenated blood?
Oxygenated - Left. Deoxygenated - Right.
19 of 42
Define arteries.
These carry blood away from the heart.
20 of 42
Define capillaries.
These are involved in the exchange of materials at the tissues.
21 of 42
Define veins.
These carry the blood to the heart.
22 of 42
How are arteries adapted to do their job?
They are strong and elastic to carry blood under high pressure. They are thick to allow a hole down the middle. They have muscle and elastic fibres to stretch and spring back.
23 of 42
How are capillaries adapted to do their job?
They carry blood close to every cell to exchange substances. Have permeable walls so substances can diffuse. Supply food, oxygen, take away C02. Only one cell thick to increase rate of diffusion.
24 of 42
How are veins adapted to do their job?
Capillaries join to make veins, blood is low pressure so they're not as thick as arteries. Large holes (lumen) than arteries to help blood flow. Have valves to keep blood in the right direction.
25 of 42
What is the equation to work out rate of blood flow?
Rate of flow = volume of blood / minutes.
26 of 42
What do red blood cells carry?
27 of 42
What shape are red blood cells? How does this help?
They are a biconcave disc, which gives it a large surface are to absorb oxygen.
28 of 42
What don't red blood cells have?
A nucleus to help carry more oxygen.
29 of 42
What happens to the haemoglobin in the lungs comapred to the rest of the body?
Lungs- Haemoglobin binds to oxygen (oxyhaemoglobin) Body - Oxyhaemoglobin splits to oxygen and haemoglobin, oxygen is released to cells.
30 of 42
What are white blood cells role?
To defend against infection. They eat unwelcome microorgansims during phagocytosis.
31 of 42
How do white blood cells complete phagocytosis?
Thy produce antibodies and antitoxins to destroy or neutralise microorganisms.
32 of 42
What is the main difference between red and white blood cells?
White have a nucleus, red don't.
33 of 42
What are platelets? What do they do?
They are small fragments of cells with no nucleus. Help blood clot a wound and stop blood pouring out. Lack of platelets = excessive bleeding.
34 of 42
What are plasma's? Name 4 substances they transport.
They are a liquid which carries everything to the blood : Red/White Blood cells, Glucose, Amino Acids, C02, Urea, Hormones, Proteins Antibodies/ Antitoxins.
35 of 42
What are stents? How they help?
Tubes inserted around the arteries to keep them open so blood can pass through. They lower the risk of a heart attack for people with coronary heart disease.
36 of 42
What is coronary heart disease?
When the coronary artery that supplies blood to heart gets blocked by fatty materials.
37 of 42
What are statins?
Drugs that reduce chlosterol in the bloodstream. It slows down the rate of fats depositing.
38 of 42
Why is is bad to have to much cholestrol? What is it needed for?
Too much can lead to fat build up and coronary heart disease however we need it as an essential lipid.
39 of 42
Give 2 advantages of statins.
Reduces risk of strokes + coronary heart disease. Increases amount of beneficial cholesterol.
40 of 42
Give 2 disadvantages of statins.
Long-term, taken regularly, people could forget. Can cause: headaches, memory loss, kidney failure etc... Takes time for effects to kick in.
41 of 42
Name 3 ways you can help someone with technolgy if they have problems with their circulatory system.
An artifical heart, Biological or mechanical Valves, Artificial Blood.
42 of 42

Other cards in this set

Card 2


How are the lungs protected?


By the ribcage and the pleural membranes.

Card 3


Where does the air you breathe in go?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What do the bronchi split into? What do they do/have?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are alveoli?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Circulation resources »