Biology chapter 1 (pathogens)

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How do viruses make us feel ill?
They invavde cells and using the cell machinery to produce many copies of themselves
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How do bacteria make us feel ill?
By damaging your cells and producing toxins
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State two ways the body protects us from pathogens
1) Mucus - traps dust and microbe. 2) Skin
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Name two pathogens?
Virus and bacteria
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Describe the three ways how white blood cells work
Ingest pathogens and destroy them. Produce antibodies to destroy particular pathogens. Produce antitoxins that counter toxins produced by the pathogen
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Advantages of vaccinations (3)
1) Prevents epidemics and pandemics. 2) Protects individuals against disease. 3) Prevents the potential greater cost treating the infected patients.
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Disadvantages of vaccinations (3)
1) Vaccinations cost the government more than a million pound a year . 2) Vaccines don't always work. 3) Possible side effects e.g. swelling, seizures.
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What practice did Ignaz Semmelweis introduce in the 1840's. Explain why this decreased death rates on his ward
He told doctors to wash their hands in an antiseptic solution before, tending to patients people, which decreased the death rates
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What do depressants do?
They slow down brain activity
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Why does viruses mutating make it hard to develop effective vaccines against them?
Because, changes to their DNA can lead to them having different antigens
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What three diseases did the MMR vaccine used to protect children from
Measles, mumps and rubella
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What kind of diseases are caused by lack of vitamin and minerals?
Deficiency diseases such as: scurvy
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Which of these is one of the main problems with viruses?
They damage the host cell when they reproduce
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What is one of the functions of white blood cells?
What is one of the functions of white blood cells?
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Which of these is one of the main problems with bacteria?
They produce toxins
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How do antibiotics work?
They can stop bacteria from reproducing
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Why is it important to use antibiotics carefully?
Over-use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistant strains of bacteria by natural selection
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What are the main 5 food groups?
Carbohydrates, protein, fats, fibre and vitamins and minerals
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do bacteria make us feel ill?

Back

By damaging your cells and producing toxins

Card 3

Front

State two ways the body protects us from pathogens

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name two pathogens?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the three ways how white blood cells work

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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