Biology - Cells

What does the nucleus contain?
Both protons and neutrons.
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What is cytoplasm?
A clear, jelly like fluid that fills the inside of the cell and surrounds all of the internal structures.
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What does the cell membrane do?
It controls how substances can move in and out of the cell and is responsible for many other properties of the cell as well.
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What happens in mitochondria?
Mitochondria convert oxygen, and the sugar, fat and protein from foods to useable energy. The body uses that energy for daily function and growth.
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What is the function of ribosomes?
Ribosomes make proteins for use in the cell and for export.
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What is the cell wall made of?
A cell wall is a layer surrounding cells just outside the cell membrane.
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What does the vacuole contain?
A vacuole contains a fluid-filled sac that stores salts, water, minerals, nutrients, pigments and proteins within a membrane barrier called a tonoplast.
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Give an example of a eukaryotic cell
Animals and plants.
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Give an example of a prokaryotic cell
E. coli
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What is a plasmid?
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
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What is the difference between a light and electron microscope?
The main difference between light microscope and electron microscope is that light microscopes use beams of light to illuminate the object under examination while the electron microscope uses beams of electrons to illuminate the object.
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What is the formula for magnification?
Magnification = measured size ÷ actual size
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What is meant by cell differentiation?
Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type.
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How are sperm cells specialised?
The sperm cells shape and structure makes it a specialised cell. Its tail (flagellem) enables it to swim and move easily to reach and fertilise the female egg.
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How are nerve cells specialised?
It is specialised by being a long, thin cell that enables it to carry electrical messages around the body.
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How are muscle cells specialised?
They have structures that are adapted for their function. For example, muscle cells bring parts of the body closer together. They contain protein fibres that can contract when energy is available, making the cells shorter.
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How are root hair cells specialised?
A root hair cell is tiny, soft and weak. Root hair cells are outgrowths at the tip of the plants roots. Root hair cells vary between 5 and 17 micrometres in diameter, and 80 to 1,500 micrometres in length.
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How are xylem cells specialised?
The xylem transports water and minerals from the roots up the plant stem and into the leaves.
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How are phloem cels specialised?
The phloem moves food substances that the plant has produced by photosynthesis to where they are needed for processes.
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Where are chromosomes found?
Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of a cell, some are also found in the cell's mitochondria.
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What are chromosomes made of?
Chromosomes are made of a single strand of DNA.
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How many chromosomes do humans have?
23 pairs of chromosomes.
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Where do these chromosomes come from?
Half passed along from the mother and half passed along from the father when the egg was fertilized by the sperm.
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What is mitosis?
A type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
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Why is mitosis important?
Mitosis is important because it is essential for growth and repair in the body.
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Describe the stages of mitosis:
Prophase - DNA begins to pack and condense. Metaphase - Chromosomes line up at equator of cell. Anaphase - Chromosomes move to opposite sides of the cell. Telophase - nuclear envelopes reform around each new daughter nuclei.
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What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the movement of a fluid from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
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How can diffusion be made faster?
If you increase the temperature you give the particles more kinetic energy and diffusion occurs faster.
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What molecules can’t diffuse through a membrane?
Water molecules can diffuse freely, as well as oxygen and carbon-dioxide.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is cytoplasm?


A clear, jelly like fluid that fills the inside of the cell and surrounds all of the internal structures.

Card 3


What does the cell membrane do?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What happens in mitochondria?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the function of ribosomes?


Preview of the front of card 5
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