# Biology - cells + specialized cells

What are two examples of a Eukaryote?
Plant and animal cells
1 of 56
How do you know these aren't Prokaryotes?
Eu contain their genetic material (DNA) in the nucleus, while Pro does not
2 of 56
List some features of a Eukaryote
Cell membrane, nucleus, DNA, cytoplasm, mitochondria, ribosomes.
3 of 56
What type of cells are bacteria cells?
Prokaryotic
4 of 56
How do you know?
DNA is not stored in nucleus. Also Pro (bacteria) cells are smaller then Eu (plants/animals)
5 of 56
List key features of a prokarotic cell.
genetic material (Plasmids, DNA loops), cytoplasm, cell wall, cell membrane,
6 of 56
There are different units for measuring in science. 1 centimeter is 1/100th meter. So what does 'centi' mean?
1/100th
7 of 56
What does 'milli' mean, knowing there's 100cm in a meter and 10mm in a cm?
1/1000th
8 of 56
micro means 1/1,000,000th. So how many micrometers are in a meter?
1,000,000 micrometer's
9 of 56
1,000,000,000nm = 1m. What does nm mean?
Nanometer.
10 of 56
complete: _mm = 0.5m. _cm = 4.5m. _nm = 1m. _um = 5m
500mm=0.5m. 450cm=4.5m. 1,000,000,000=1m. 5,000,000=1m
11 of 56
List the units in order of largest to smallest.
m, cm, mm, um(micrometer), nm(nanometer)
12 of 56
What does order of magnitude mean?
size comparison. e.g an apple and orange are around the same order of magnitude
13 of 56
1 order of magnitude means __x(times)
10x (e.g. a pineapple is around 1 order of magnitude lager then a lemon)
14 of 56
Every order of mag. is 10x greater then the last so 3 orders of magnitude is ___ times.
1000 times (add x number of 0's)
15 of 56
100x is _ orders of magnitude.
2 orders.
16 of 56
A fox is 40cm. tic on the fox is 0.4cm. How many orders of mag. bigger is the fox?
40/0.4 = 100. Answer = 2 orders of mag. (100 has 2 0's)
17 of 56
What is the cytoplasm?
Watery solution in cell where chemical reactions happen.
18 of 56
List one example of a reaction that happens here.
Respiration.
19 of 56
What da cell membrane do?
Controls what goes in/out cell.
20 of 56
Where does aerobic respiration(breathing) take place?
Mitochondria.
21 of 56
What even is aerobic respiration?
Respiration that uses oxygen as a reactant.
22 of 56
What do ribosomes do? + made of?
site of protein synthesis. Made from rNA
23 of 56
What does Mitochondria do?
Takes in nutrients from the cell, breaks it down, and turns it into energy
24 of 56
What features are in both animal and plants cells?
Cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, ribosomes
25 of 56
What are the extra features that are in plant cell?
Cell wall, Chloroplasts, permanent vacuole.
26 of 56
What is the cell wall made from + function?
Cellulose. Strength and structure.
27 of 56
What is the chloroplasts made from + function.
Chlorophyll. Site of photosynthesis.
28 of 56
What does the vacuole contain + function?
Cell sap. Gives plant its shape.
29 of 56
Plants can use light to carry out ___
Photosynthesis.
30 of 56
Most animal cells are s____ (structure suits their function)
Specialized
31 of 56
What is it called when a cell becomes specialized?
Differentiation
32 of 56
A sperm cell joins to the egg cell to fertilize it (genetic info is combined). How are sperm cells adapted for this process?
Nucleus contains DNA (half of adult cell). Long tail, helps swim. Mitochondria, energy for swim. Enzymes, help digest through egg.
33 of 56
Nerve cells send electrical impulses around body. They have a long axon as part of their structure. How does this help?
Carries electrical impulses.
34 of 56
The axon is covered with myelin. How does this help?
Insulates axon + speeds up transmissions of nerve impulses
35 of 56
The end of the axon has ___.
Synapses
36 of 56
What do they do?
They act as junctions so impulse can get from one nerve cell to another.
37 of 56
On the other end of the cell, there're d___
Dendrites
38 of 56
What does the dendrite do?
Increase surface area so other nerves cells can connect easier.
39 of 56
Muscle cells contract (shorter). They contain p__ f__ to do this, which can change their length.
Protein Fibers
40 of 56
When the muscle contracts, these protein fibers ___en
Shorten
41 of 56
Muscle cells are packed with ___ to provide energy for muscle contraction.
Mitochondria.
42 of 56
Muscle cells work together to form muscle ____
Muscle tissues.
43 of 56
Plants have roots with hairs on (specialized cell). How do the hairs help?
Increases surface area of root for absorbing water and dissolving minerals more efficiently.
44 of 56
What do root hair cells contain (e.g cytoplasm?)
Vacuole, nucleus, cell wall, cytoplasm
45 of 56
They do not contain chloroplasts. Why?
Chloroplasts is site of photosynthesis, but as the cell is underground, they cannot carry out photosynthesis (no sun T^T)
46 of 56
Where are xylem cells found? (plant)
In plant stem.
47 of 56
They form long tubes that carry ___ and dissolve ____ from roots to leaves.
Carry water. Dissolve minerals.
48 of 56
They have thick walls containing chemical ___, which provides support for plant.
Lignin
49 of 56
What's the result of lignin sealing the walls?
Causes xylem to die
50 of 56
This causes the end walls between the cells to break down, forming a long tube, meaning...
Water and dissolved minerals can flow easily.
51 of 56
P____ tubes carry dissolved sugars up/down plant.
Phloem
52 of 56
Phloem cells have no n___ and only limited c ___
No nucleus. Limited cytoplasm.
53 of 56
The end wall of the vessel cells have pores called s__ p__
Sieve Plates
54 of 56
This feature allows d__ s__ to move through cells inertia.
Dissolved sugars.
55 of 56
Other then mitochondria, what provides energy to the phloem vessel cell?
Companion cell
56 of 56

## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

How do you know these aren't Prokaryotes?

#### Back

Eu contain their genetic material (DNA) in the nucleus, while Pro does not

### Card 3

#### Front

List some features of a Eukaryote

### Card 4

#### Front

What type of cells are bacteria cells?

How do you know?