BIOLOGY B1 probemas

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Why are mineral irons and vitamins needed for the body?
To keep the body healthy and stop it becoming malnourished.
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Excercising increases the _________ rate so that chemical reactions in cells work _________
"Metabolic" "Faster"
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HIGHER GRADE TIPS
You will gain higher grades by explaining things in more detail, such as "Foods contain energy, and any excess energy is stores as fat"
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Two inhertired factors that effect our health
Metabolic rate and cholesterol levels
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Pathogens are _________ that cause infectious _________
"micro-organisms" "diseases"
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Most pathogens are either _________ or _________
bacteria or viruses
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Pathogens reproduce _________ and produce _________
quickly toxins
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Viruses reproduce inside of _________ and damage them
Cells
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Pathogens that enter the body are destroyed/_________ by _________
"engulfed" "white blood cells"
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What 3 defence mechanisms does a white blood cell have?
To - Ingest and destroy pathogens - Produce anti-bodies - Product anti-toxins
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Many medicines relieve symptoms, but don't _________
Kill the pathogens that caused them
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Anti-biotics kill bacterial diseases but not _________ because _________
viruses in the body because they reproduce inside body cells
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Where can bacteria be grown?
In a Petri dish, using sterilised equipment in Jelly
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If a pathogen mutates, the new strain will spread
Rapidly causing viral infections (new strains can also cause epidemics + pandemics)
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When bacteria mutate, what can they become immune to?
Anti-biotic meaning they are much harder to kill
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A vaccine contains?
A dead version of the virus so that white blood cells can learn to defeat the real virus. This stimulates a fake attack on the immune system.
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QUICK FACTS
Over use of anti-biotics can cause a new strain of bacteria to grow - being immune to the virus.
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What are the 5 receptors for the nervous system?
Eye, ear, nose, tongue, skin
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What does the nervous system use to detect stimuli?
Receptors
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How does the brain use these signals from the nervous system?
It sends electrical impulses along neurons, where the brain then co-ordinates a respnonse.
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Reflex actions are _________ and in response to _________
Rapid and Stimulus
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Steps of reflex actions:
Receptor detects stimulus (sharp pain), then a sensory neuron transmits a impulse onto the brain, which a relay neuron passes on and a actions is taken. (the response)
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Menstrual cycle takes _________ and ovulation about _________ days into the cycle.
28 days and ovulation 14 days in.
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What three hormones control the cycle?
FSH (causes egg to mature) , Oestrogen (stops further production of FSH) and LH (stimulates egg to b released)
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Why would a doctor give a women extra FSH hormones?
To help her produce eggs. This is knows as fertility treatment.
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The internal conditions f the body are maintained and kept stable by the _________
Nervous system and hormones
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Internal conditions in the body, which are controlled are: _________
Water content, ion content, temperature and blood sugar levels
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If the internal conditions aren't maintained, then enzymes will...
denature, and not work properly meaning they wont fit into their active site.
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Sugar in the blood is the _________ source for cells, and is controlled by the _________
energy source and is controlled by the pancreas
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What are the 3 factors which plants respond too?
Light, gravity and moisture.
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Plant shoots grow towards _________ and away from _________
Towards light and away from gravity.
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Roots grow towards _________ and _________ and the hormone _________ causes this
gravity and water, and the hormone auxin causes this.
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Why do new drugs need to be tested before launch?
So that they have safe side effects, and to see if they work and to check that they aren't toxic.
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Why can incorrect use of hormones damage the enviroment?
Weedkillers for example may harm other plants,
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What are the good uses for hormones in agriculture?
Can encourage plants to ripen or to encourage roots to grow before a plant get cuts again.
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B1 3.1 - Drugs
B1 3.1 - Drugs
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What are drugs?
Chemicals which alter the bodies chemistry.
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What are statins?
Drugs which lower the amount of "bad" cholesterol carried in blood.
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How can you ensure that herbs (for medical purposes) work?
Do a double blind study, One group gets a real drug, the other gets a placebo.
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Name 2 illegal recreational drugs:
Cannabis and heroin
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What type of drugs can cannabis lead to and why?
"Hard drugs" because they must contact drug dealers,
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What can cannabis lead to?
Depression in teens, and mental illness'
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What do steroids do to a athlete's body?
Increase the athlete's muscle mass, used to increase stamina.
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Why are pain killers banned in sport?
Incase the athlete encounters a injury, they may ignore and injury and suffer further damage.
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B1 4.1 - Adapt and survive
B1 4.1 - Adapt and survive
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To survive and reproduce, what do plants need?
Light, CO2, Water, Oxygen, and nutrients from the soil.
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Most animals live in temperatures below ___ C so that their enzymes can work?
40C
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Name on way in which animals in cold situations adapt to their surroundings?
Thicker fur, and thicker skin (blubber). Some wolves also go white in Winter, brown in summer for camouflage.
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What adaptions to animals in hot, dry areas have?
Smaller surface areas compared to their volume, so conserve energy easily but more difficult to cool down.
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How are Cactus's well adapted?
Spiky leafs to stop being eaten, less surface area of leafs to reduce water loss. Large root system. (made by DG)
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How do plants lose water?
Lose water as water vapour through holes in leaves called stomata.
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How can a plant retain water?
Swollen stem, very small or waxy leafes.
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How do predators and prey adapt to survive longer?
Camouflage, or faster running, horns.
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What do plants compete over each other for?
Water, nutrients and light
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How many plants compete? (some may have very deep roots)
Smaller woodland plants flower before the trees, thus get water first.
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How do plants stop themselves competing with their own species?
Spread seeds over a large surface area.
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What is a ovipositor? (female fig wasps)
Aorgan through which a female fig wasps deposits eggs.
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Name non-living factors which affect a animals living enviroment:
Temperature, rain fall, light and oxygen levels.
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Name living factors which affect a animals living enviroment:
New predators, disease, or a lack of prey.
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Lichen are a example of indicator species. What is this?
Detects environmental changes in pH, and rain level/ oxygen levels.
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Name 2 equipments that measure non-living environmental conditions,
Rain gauges, pH and oxygen sensors.
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Changes in enviroment effect the disribution of _________ _________ .
Living organisms
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Why may birds change their enviroments?
Some may fly north if climate gets warmer, so they may encounter new competitors.
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What factors have affected bee pollution?
Use of chemical sprays by farmers, and viral diseases.
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B1 5.1 - Energy in biomass
B1 5.1 - Energy in biomass
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What is the main source of energy for living organisms?
The sun
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Green plants and algea capture light energy during _________
Photosynthesis
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Why is biomass at each stage in the food chain less than before?
Energy is lost through respiration (alot of which is eventually released into the enviroment), movement, and excretion.
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Where can energy be stores?
Feces and urea
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What is a Detritus feeder?
They are organisms (like worms) that decompose plants and animal parts as well as feces.
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What situation is decay quicker in?
Warm, moist and anaerobic conditions.
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Decay organisms are micro organisms. Name these?
Bacteria and Fungi
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Where can humans recycle waste?
Sewage treatment plants and compost heaps
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What is the constant cycling of carbon in nature known as?
Carbon cycle
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During photosynthesis, _________ is removed from the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide
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What two processes return CO2 to the enviroment?
Respiration and combustion
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Why is recycling organic kitchen and garden waste necessary?
Reduce landfill, reduce methane production, recycling minerals and nutrients in the waste.
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Name 2 ways in which garden/kitchen organic waste can be beneficial for the enviroment.
Reduce landfill, and reduce methane production.
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What may gardeners add to composters add to speed up the process?
Layers of garden soil and worms.
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B1 6.1 Variation, reproduction and new technology
B1 6.1 Variation, reproduction and new technology
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What do organisms have similar characteristics to?
Their parents.
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How are genes passed on?
In sex cells from parents to off spring.
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What do genes control?
The characteristics of your body.
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What do both parents contribute in body cell chromosomes?
One set comes from Female Gamete, and one from the Male Gamete.
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What is asexual reproduction?
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
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How are clones produced?
Asexual reproduction.
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What are clones?
Identical copies of one parent, made by genetic modification.
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What is sexual reproduction and what does it lead to?
Involves two parents and leads to variety in off spring.
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Why is variation important?
Some random variety in characteristics may give off spring a better chance of surviving in different conditions.
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What causes differences in individuals of the same species?
Genes, or the enviroment, or both.
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What may cause clones to have differences?
Environmental causes.
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What are the two factors which control some of our characteristics?
Genes and enviroment.
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How can plant clones be made?
Can be made by taking cuttings from mature plants.
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What is a newer method of cloning?
Tissue culture
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How can animals be cloned?
Animals can be cloned by transplanting cloned embryos.
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Name a quick, cheap way of cloning plants.
Tissue culture
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What is easier to clone, plants or animals?
Plants
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Name an examle of adult cells cloning
"Dolly the sheep"
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How is adult cell cloning done?
Nucleus of a adult cells is transplanted into a "empty" egg cell - when the animal develops it has the genetic material of original adult cell.
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What causes the new cell to divide?
A electric shock. (cards made by DG)
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What is genetic engineering used for?
To transfer a gene from one organism to another.
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What are enzymes used for in this process?
To 'cut out' a gene from a human chromosome and them to insert them into a bacterial cell.
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Why are genes transferred into animals and plants in the early stages?
So the organism grows up with the gene and divides those cells.
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What is used to cut out genes of chromosomes?
Enzymes
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What are advantages of GM Crops?
They can be resistant to herbicides or insects.
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Disadvantages of GM Crops?
Farmers need to buy new seeds every year as it makes the crops infertile.
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Why do farmers grow GM Crops?
Bigger yield, and resistant to herbicides and insects.
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B1 7.1 - Evolution
B1 7.1 - Evolution
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What is the estimated age of LIFE on earth?
3 billion years
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Who came up with the theory of evolution?
Darwin
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What does the theory of evolution dictate?
Organisms make small changes over time and vary to enhance their chances of survival and reproduction.
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How long ago did life begin on earth?
3 billion years
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When Darwin came up with evolution, what did he not know about?
Genes, so he couldn't quantify what allowed animals to pass on these modifications (genes).
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What does Darwin's theory also state?
Evolution takes place by a process of natural selection.
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Was Darwin's theory of evolution accepted immediately?
Only accepted gradually during the 18th century as the vast majority of people were strong, crazy creationists.
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How did Darwin help prove his theory of evolution by natural selection?
By Finches on the Galapagos Islands, by measuring their beak sizes over a long amount of time.
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How long after his theory were genes and genetics discovered in science?
50 years.
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What name is given to Darwin's theory of evolution?
Natural selection
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Which birds did Darwin observe for evidence for evolution?
Finches on Galapagos Islands.
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What does natural selection mean?
The fittest organisms survive and breed.
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What may happen if a gene changes?
The new characteristic may enable the organism to survive better.
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Which organisms will survive the best?
The fittest.
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Why are mutated genes sometimes an advantage?
Allow the organism to survive longer, sometimes.
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How can we classify organisms into groups?
Comparing their similarities and differences.
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What does classification help us to understand?
Evolutionary relationships.
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What are the main kingdoms of living organisms?
Plant kingdom, animal kingdom, and kingdoms which contain the microorganisms.
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What do ecological relations tell us?
They tell us how species have evolved together in an enviroment.
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End of B1!!! (Made by DG)
End of B1!!! (Made by DG)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Excercising increases the _________ rate so that chemical reactions in cells work _________

Back

"Metabolic" "Faster"

Card 3

Front

HIGHER GRADE TIPS

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Two inhertired factors that effect our health

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Pathogens are _________ that cause infectious _________

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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