Biology BY2 - THINGS I KEEP FORGETTING

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  • Created by: Tasha.L
  • Created on: 09-05-16 10:52
What does the mass flow hypothesis suggest?
That there is a passive mass flow of sucrose from the phloem (the source), where its concentration is highest, to the sinks, such as growing tissues.
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What is translocation?
This is the movement of products of photosynthesis, such as sucrose and amino acids, from sources to sinks.
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What could cytoplasmic streaming responsible for?
The movement of different solutes in different directions in individual sieve tube elements, providing that there was some mechanism to transport the solutes through the sieve plates.
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Why is the volume taken up by the shoot slightly higher than that transpired out of the plant?
1. Some is used in photosynthesis. 2. Some evaporates from the cuticle. 3. Some is used to keep cells turgid.
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Does the stomach contain endopeptidases or exopeptidases?
ENDOpeptidases
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What two glands are found in the epithelium of the small intestine and what do they secrete?
Goblet cells - they secrete mucus. Brunner's Glands (in the Crypts of Lieberkuhn) - these secrete alkaline solutions.
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What do the villus tips in the small intestine secrete?
Endo/exopeptidases - for the breakdown of polypeptides into amino acids.
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By what transport mechanism do minerals enter the blood?
Facilitated diffusion
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By what transport mechanism do water-soluble vitamins enter the blood?
Diffusion
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What are found in the large intestine only and what do they secrete?
Mutualistic organisms - they secrete vitamin K, for blood clotting, and folic acid.
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What does the pork tapeworm's body consist of and what do they contain?
Proglottids: they contain male and female reproductive organs, so each tapeworm produces a vast number of eggs.
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State the disadvantages of a single circulatory system.
1. Organisms cannot maintain a high blood pressure due to the resistance created by a fine network of blood capillaries. 2. Blood flow is rather sluggish and so the organism cannot be as active: they have a low metabolic rate.
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What time of heart do insects have?
One large, tube shaped dorsal heart that runs the length of their body.
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Name the hearts and two main vessels of an earthworm.
Earthworm's have five pseudohearts. Blood is pumped forward in a dorsal vessel and back in a ventral vessel.
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What does it mean by myogenic contraction.
The cardiac muscles of the heart can contract and relax rhythmically on their own accord, without initiation from an electrical impulse.
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What is the tunica externa made up of?
Collagen fibres to resist overstretching.
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Describe the differences of the ECG trace of a person with atrial fibrillation (rapid heart rate).
They may lake a P wave.
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Describe the differences of the ECG trace of a person who has had a heart attack.
They would have a wider QRS complex.
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Describe the differences of the ECG trace of a person with enlarged ventricle walls.
They would have an ECG trace of greater altitude.
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Describe the differences of the ECG trace of a person with insufficient blood delivery to the heart.
The height of their T wave or ST segment may change.
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Define tissue fluid.
The fluid that bathes and surrounds the respiring tissues and allows for the exchange of materials between the body cells and the blood.
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Define plasma.
A pale yellow liquid, about 90 percent water, containing solutes such as food molecules, waste products, hormones and plasma proteins.
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Define lymph.
The fluid absorbed from between the cells into the lymph capillaries, rather than back into the blood capillaries.
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Name the three domains.
Eubacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota.
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Name the five kingdoms.
Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Protoctista, Prokaryota.
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Convergent Evolution
When structures have evolved to have similar shapes and functions, but have come from different developmental origins.
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Biodiversity can vary spatially. What does this mean?
That biodiversity can differ in various environments/areas.
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What are the regions in non-coding DNA, involved in electrophoresis called?
Short Tandem Repeats (STR's)
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Why is non-coding DNA used for DNA fingerprinting?
As there are more mutations than in other parts of the genome.
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What is a physiological adaptation?
A change that permits an organism to permit a specific function, such as the ability to make venom.
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What is a behavioural adaptation?
A change in the pattern of action of a species to better suit its environment.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is translocation?

Back

This is the movement of products of photosynthesis, such as sucrose and amino acids, from sources to sinks.

Card 3

Front

What could cytoplasmic streaming responsible for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why is the volume taken up by the shoot slightly higher than that transpired out of the plant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Does the stomach contain endopeptidases or exopeptidases?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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