Biology - Biological Molecules

For AS/A-level Year 1 AQA Biology starting in Sept 2015

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  • Created by: leah_184
  • Created on: 14-05-16 20:44
Who were the scientists who discovered and figured out DNA structure?
Watson and Crick, Franklin did the X-Ray Crystalography
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What are all the Bases for DNA? And RNA?
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine. All the same for RNA but instead of Thymine it is Uracil
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The Sugar in DNA is _____ prime and the Phosphate is ____ prime...
1. three 2. five
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What is a metabolic reaction?
Its a chemical reaction that happens in a living organism to keep it alive.
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What is a metabolite?
A substance involved in a metabolic reaction
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A positive ion is called ______... And the reverse is a _____....
1.cation 2.anion
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An inoragnic ion is one that doesnt contain carbon. True or False
True
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Iron ions are an important part of __________.
Haemoglobin
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Hydrogen Ions help determine pH. True or False
True
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Sodium ions help transport what two things across membranes?
Glucose and Amino Acids
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Phosphate ions are an essential component of what two things?
ATP and DNA
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What are the 5 useful properties of Water?
1. Important Metabolite, 2. High Latent Heat of Vaperistation, 3. Act as a Buffer to changes in temperature, 4. A good solvent, 5. Strong Cohesion between water molecules
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What are the differences between DNA and RNA?
DNA has a deoxyribose whilst RNA has a Ribose. RNA has a different base of Uracil to replace Thymine in DNA. DNA is made up of 2 polynucleotide chain, however RNA is made from from a single polynucleotide
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What are the three constituents of a Nucleotide?
a pentose sugar, a nitrogen-containing organic base and a phosphate group
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What's a competitive inhibitor?
Molecules that have a similar shape to the substrate molecules, they compete for the active site
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What is a non-competitive inhibitor?
A molecule that binds to the enzyme away from the active site and causes the enzyme to change shape so the substrate cant bind to the active site
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What effects enzyme activity?
Temperature, pH, Concentration of Enzyme, Substrate Concentration.
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What are Enzymes?
They are biological catalysts, speeds up a reaction but isn't changed its self, affects the structure in an organism.
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What are the four structural levels of a protein?
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary
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Whats the Primary structure?
A sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain
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What is the secondary structure?
Hydrogen bonds form and go into either folds into a beta pleated sheet or coils into an alpha helix
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What is the Tertiary structure?
The secondary structure coils or foils further and more bonds are formed between different parts of the polypeptide chain, including ionic and hydrogen bonds. Disulphide briges are also formed. This forms a 3D strucure.
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What is the Quaternary structure?
Where some proteins are made up of several different polypeptide chains (Sub-units) held together by bonds. This is the protein final 3D structure
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Proteins are made of ____ chains of _____ _____(monomers of proteins).
1. Long, 2. Amino Acids.
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The Structure of a Triglyceride? Which side is Hydrophobic and which is Hydrophilic.
3 Fatty Acids and a glycerol, the fatty acids are hydrophobic and the glycerol is hydrophilic.
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Structure of a Phospholipid?
A phosphate group attached to a glycerol and two fatty acids attached to that.
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What is the function of a Triglyceride?
Mainly used as energy storage molecules as they doesn't affect the osmotic pressure or water potential as they are insoluble because of the hydrophobic tails.
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What is the function of Phospholipid?
Make up the bilayer of the cell membrane, they control what enters and leaves the cell
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A ____________ reaction produces water.
Condensation
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The opposite to a Condensation reaction is __________.
Hydrolysis
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What is the bond that joins two monosaccharides together to form a disaccharide?
Glycosidic
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What elements are Carbohydrates made up of?
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
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What are the two types of glucose and what is the difference?
Beta (ß) Glucose, the OH group on the right is the opposite to the right, facing down and Alpha Glucose, the OH group on the left is the same as the right and is facing up.
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What is the difference between Fructose and Glucose?
Fructose is a pentose sugar, however glucose is a hexose sugar.
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What two monosaccharides make up Sucrose?
Glucose, Fructose.
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What two monosaccharides make up Lactose?
Glucose and Galactose
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are all the Bases for DNA? And RNA?

Back

Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine. All the same for RNA but instead of Thymine it is Uracil

Card 3

Front

The Sugar in DNA is _____ prime and the Phosphate is ____ prime...

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a metabolic reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a metabolite?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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