Biology B5e Digestion

Give an example of physical digestion
chewing in your mouth, squeezing food in the stomach to break it into smaller pieces.
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Why is it important to break food into smaller pieces
So it can pass through the gut easily and also because the increase of surface area=quicker chemical reactions
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What is peristalsis?
process of food passing through the gut
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where does peristalsis start?
in the gullet and continues to alimentary canal
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How is food moved along in the gut?
by contraction of circular muscles in the gut wall
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what does chemical digestion involve?
uses enzymes to break down large insoluble molecules into smaller soluble molecules
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give an example of large insoluble molecules that need to be broken down
carbohydrates, fats and proteins
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Why do large insoluble need to be broken down into small soluble molecules
so they can diffuse through the walls of the small intestine into the blood stream or lymth.
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How are large insoluble molecules digested?
specfic enzymes in the mouth, small intestine or stomach.
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where does carbohydrates digestion begin?
Carbohydrates are broken by carbohydrase enzymes into small soluble sugars.
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Explain the two step process of the digestion of carbohydrates
1. carbohydrates are broken by the enzymes (amylase) into maltose. 2. Maltose are broken down by the enzyme (maltase) into glucose.
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What enzymes are in the stomach
protease enzymes
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who do these enzymes do/ function?
break down the large insoluble proteins into smaller peptides/amino acids.
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How is Hydrocholic acid released into the stomach
by the cells in the wall of the stomach
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Give one example of the benefit of hydrochloric acid?
its kill MOST bacteria and creates conditions for protease enzymes which can work effecitively to break the large insoluble proteins.
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Some bacteria can survive acidic conditiosna and thrive in them, give an example?
Proteus bacterium
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What enzymes are produced by the pancreas
carbohydrases, proteases and lipase
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What are carbohydrases used for?
digestion of carbohydrates
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what are lipase used for?
to break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol
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what are proteases used for ?
break down of proteins
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How is stomach acid important
it provides optimium pH for proteases to work effectively.
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Enzymes in the mouth and small intestine require what type of conditions?
more alkaline pH values for optimal activity.
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Describe how small molecules are absorbed into blood plasma or lymth via diffusion
small soluble molecules produced by digestion are ABSOREBD into the blood stream through the walls of the small intestin, mainly by DIFFUSION however some active transport. Food enters the blood in the small intestine and enters the body tissues .
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Explain how the small intestine is adapted for the efficent absorption of food?
being long-7m, possessing thousands of villi = larger surface area, thin lining to reduce diffusion distance for dissolved molecules , possessing a good blood supply through extentive capillary network
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Where is bile produced,stored,released?
Bile is produced in the liver, stored in gall bladder, released into the small intestine.
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Explain how bile improves fat digestion?
bile emulsifes the fat droplets and break down large droplets into smaller ones to increase surface area. Allows lipase enzymes to work faster.
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Why is fat hard to digest
doesnt mix easily with the water in the intestine because the water has been absorbed back into the blood stream
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why is it important to break food into smaller pieces

Back

So it can pass through the gut easily and also because the increase of surface area=quicker chemical reactions

Card 3

Front

What is peristalsis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

where does peristalsis start?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is food moved along in the gut?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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