Biology - B5

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  • Created by: hols_
  • Created on: 17-12-15 16:16
Explain IVF (In Vitro fertilisation)
Sperm and eggs are mixed together outside of the body. The embryos that grow are transplanted into the uterus.
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Problems with IVF:
Expensive, does not have a high success rate, twins/triplets are more likely to be produced as more than 1 embryo is implanted, many people do not agree with disposing of human embryos - some may donate or give away.
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Adaptations of the small intestine for efficient absorption of food:
Long, has thin lining. Large surface area provided by villi & micro-villi. Permeable surface & rich blood supply.
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Food enters the blood in the small intestine & leaves?
In the body tissues.
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Once the large food molecules are broken down...
Into small, soluble molecules they must be absorbed into the bloodstream through the small intestine. The food molecules pass from the small intestine into the blood through diffusion.
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High concentration and low concentration of food molecules where?
High concentration of food molecules in the small intestine but low concentration in the blood. Movement of molecules is from a high to low concentration.
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What is a dialysis machine used for?
In patients with kidney failure to remove urea & maintain levels of sodium, water & glucose in the blood.
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How does a dialysis machine work?
Blood is taken from the vein & run into the machine, comes into close contact with a partially permeable membrane which separates blood from dialysis fluid, waste diffuses from blood into dialysis fluid - Sodium & glucose replaced in the blood.
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Salt & water regulation?
Hairpin blend of the loop of henie is where water is reabsorbed into the blood, extends from the cortex to the medulla, allowing plenty of time for reabsorption of water & ions. Complex movements of ions & water across the loop result in the
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What does Bile do & where does it come from?
Breaks down large droplets into smaller droplets to increase their surface area, which enables lipase enzymes to work much faster. Comes from the gall bladder to aid digestion.
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What do the kidneys do?
Clean the blood, excrete urea, water & salts. They contain millions of tiny tubules which are very close to the blood capillaries.
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Kidneys filter...
Blood at a high pressure to separate the small molecules from the blood, they then reabsorb the useful substances such as sugar & water.
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Why does the water level need to be controlled by the kidneys?
If there is not enough water you become dehydrated & the blood is thick & difficult. Too much water = blood pressure raising too high, therefore the kidney controls this.
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Protein foods are broken down into amino acids & part of the breakdown results in?
The production of a poison, urea in the liver, kidneys remove all of the urea from the blood.
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Fertility Drugs (FSH)...
Can be injected into a woman who does not produce enough FSH naturally. FSH stimulates eggs to ripen & be released.
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Artificial insemination...
When the man's sperm count is low or the woman's oviducts are blocked. Sperm is placed directly into the uterus or oviducts.
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Egg Donation...
If the woman does not produce fertile eggs, they can be donated by a mother woman, fertilised by IVF and transplanted (sperm can also be donated).
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Ovary transplant...
This gives a woman a supply of eggs if her own ovaries do not function.
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Surrogacy...
An embryo produced by IVF can be implanted into a surrogate mother who carries the baby. This helps woman who cannot have a normal pregnancy or cannot carry a baby to full-term.
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Problems with egg/sperm donation:
The embryo carries genes from only one parent & genes from a donor.
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Problems with surrogacy:
Can lead to emotional attachment, meaning the surrogate mother may find it hard to give the baby to its biological parents.
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5 Stages of growth:
Infancy (up to 2 years), Childhood (2-11 years), Puberty/adolescence (11-15 years), Adulthood/maturity (15-65 years, roughly), Old age (60-65 years)
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Rate of growth is maximum when?
Baby is first born.
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Human growth is measured in:
Height or mass.
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A baby's growth is measured in:
Head circumference length & mass.
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Human growth hormone is produced...
By the pituitary gland in the brain, which stimulates growth especially of long bones.
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Factors affecting growth:
Genes, diet, exercise, amount of growth hormone you produce, how healthy you are, hormones & any diseases/conditions you may have had.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Problems with IVF:

Back

Expensive, does not have a high success rate, twins/triplets are more likely to be produced as more than 1 embryo is implanted, many people do not agree with disposing of human embryos - some may donate or give away.

Card 3

Front

Adaptations of the small intestine for efficient absorption of food:

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Food enters the blood in the small intestine & leaves?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Once the large food molecules are broken down...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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