Biology - B4

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  • Created by: L_Georgie
  • Created on: 22-04-16 19:57
Name the parts of an animal cell.
Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane and mitochondria.
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What is important about the nucleus?
It contains DNA and DNA contains the instructions for making proteins.
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What is the cytoplasm?
A gel-like substance where proteins like enzymes are made.
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What does a cell membrane do?
It holds together the cell and controls what goes in and out of the cell.
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What extra things do plant cells have that animal cells don't?
A cell wall, vacuole and chloroplasts.
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What happens in chloroplasts and what do they contain?
Photosynthesis reactions occur in the chloroplasts and they contain a green substance called chlorophyll and enzymes needed for photosynthesis.
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What an yeast be used to make?
Bread and wine.
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Name the different parts of a yeast cell.
Cell membrane, mitochondria, cytoplasm, nucleus and cell wall.
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What do bacteria cells have instead of a nucleus?
They have a circular molecule of DNA which floats around in the cytoplasm.
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What are enzymes?
Proteins that speed up chemical reactions.
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What is a substrate?
A substrate is a molecule that is changed in a reaction.
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Why do enzymes usually only speed up one reaction?
Because each enzyme has it's own active site that is the correct shape for a substrate to fit into.
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What is a 'lock and key' model?
It is a model that shows the substrate fitting into the enzyme just like a key and then being broke up.
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What does increasing the temperature do to the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction?
At first it increases it but then if it gets too hot some of the bonds holding the enzyme together breaks which changes the shape of the enzymes active site and so the substrate will no longer fit. The enzyme is denatured.
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What happens to the enzyme if the pH level is too high or too low?
It interferes with the bonds holding the enzyme together and denatures the enzyme.
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What is the definition of respiration?
Respiration is a series of chemical reactions that release energy by breaking down large food molecules.
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What processes is the energy released by respiration used in?
Movement, active transport and synthesis of large molecules.
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What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water (+ Energy Released)
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What is the balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O (+ Energy Released)
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What produces more energy aerobic respiration or anaerobic respiration?
Aerobic respiration.
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When does anaerobic respiration occur in human cells?
When you do really vigorous exercise and your body can't supply enough oxygen to your muscle cells.
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When does anaerobic respiration occur in plant cells?
If the soil that a plant is growing in becomes really waterlogged they'll be no oxygen available for the roots.
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When does anaerobic respiration occur in bacterial cells?
When bacteria gets under your skin through a puncture wound there is very little or no oxygen there.
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose -> Lactic Acid (+ Energy Released)
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What can anaerobic respiration produce in plant cells and some micro-organisms?
Ethanol and Carbon Dioxide.
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What is fermentation?
Where micro-organisms break down sugars into other products as they respire anaerobically.
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What do humans use fermentation to make?
Biogas, bread and alcohol.
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What is the definition of photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is a series of chemical reactions that uses energy from sunlight to produce food.
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Why is chlorophyll needed for photosynthesis to occur?
Chlorophyll is needed because it absorbs the sun light and allows the energy to be used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose.
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What is the word equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon Dioxide + Water -> Glucose + Oxygen
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What is the balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
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What are the three ways that plants use glucose?
In respiration, used to make chemicals for growth and stored as starch.
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What chemicals are made and how are they made with the glucose?
Glucose is converted into cellulose for cell walls, glucose is combined with nitrogen to make amino acids which can then be made into proteins and glucose is also used to help make chlorophyll.
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state the three factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis.
Amount of light, Amount of CO2 and temperature.
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What happens to the rate of photosynthesis when the light levels are increased?
At first the rate of photosynthesis increases gradually until it gets to a certain point where it won't make a difference because it will be either Carbon dioxide or temperature that is the limiting factor.
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What happens to the rate of photosynthesis when the carbon dioxide levels are increased?
At first the rate of photosynthesis increases gradually until it reaches a certain point where it won't make a difference because it will be another factor that becomes the limiting factor.
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What happens to the rate of photosynthesis when the temperature is increased?
When the temperature is low the enzymes needed for the photosynthesis work more slowly. but if a plant gets too hot the enzymes will denature. This normally happens at about 45 degrees.
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How do you take a transect?
You run a tape measure between two fixed points. then you start at one end and move up the tape measure collecting all the information you need.
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What is a quadrat and what can you use it for?
It is a square frame that is divided into a hundred smaller squares. Using this you can estimate the percentage coverage of things like plants.
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What is an identification key and how does it help people?
It's a series of questions that helps identify the species of things like plants.
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What is the definition for diffusion?
Diffusion is the passive overall movement of particles from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration.
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Give an example of when plants use diffusion.
When they absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen through leaves.
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What is the definition for osmosis?
Osmosis is the overall movement of water from a dilute to a more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane.
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What process do plants use to take up water through their roots and how?
They use osmosis to take up water as there is usually a higher concentration of water in the soil than there is inside the plant.
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What is the definition for active transport?
Active transport is the overall movement of chemicals across a cell membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration using energy released by respiration.
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Give an example of when plants use active transport.
When they take in minerals like nitrates through their roots.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is important about the nucleus?

Back

It contains DNA and DNA contains the instructions for making proteins.

Card 3

Front

What is the cytoplasm?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does a cell membrane do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What extra things do plant cells have that animal cells don't?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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