BIOLOGY B3 probemas

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What is osmosis?
A process by a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one.
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What is the simpler definition of osmosis?
Movement of water
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What is active transport?
Allows cells to transport substances in and out inside a cell against the concentration gradient.
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Where does active transport get energy from?
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What can be absorbed by active transport?
Ions from dilute solutions such as sugar.
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What do most soft drinks contain?
Water, sugar, and mineral ions.
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In the lungs, what do large organisms need to move about?
Exchange surfaces
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What causes ventilation to occur?
The changes of pressure inside of the chest.
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What are villi?
An effecient exchange surface for the absorbtion of food by digestion or active transport.
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Name 2 advantages of Villi
Have a large surface area and large blood suply.
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What do stomata allow in plants?
Allow Co2 in plants to diffuse from plant to enviroment.
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What does root hair cells do?
Increase the surface area of the roots.
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How is water lost in a plant?
By evaporation through the stomata.
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How can you protect a plant from excessive water loss?
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What conditions is evaporation most rapid in?
Windy, hot, humid, dry and exposed sunny conditions.
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Name 2 waste products of the body:
Co2 and urea.
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How is CO2 produced as a waste product and how is it removed?
Produced by respiration and removed via the lungs.
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How is urea produced as a waste product and how's it removed?
Produced by liver in breakdown of amino acids and removed in urine.
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What do chemical reactions in the body produce as waste?
Toxic products
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What do the kidneys do to waste products?
Excrete them.
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What does the kidney do to the blood in two stages?
1) It filters it 2) Selectively re absorbs what minerals etc it wants.
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How can a patient with failing kidneys be treated?
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What is a dialysis machine?
A artificial kidney which does the same function as it.
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Why may a kidney transplant not be 'sucsessful'?
If the body rejects it.
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Why would a body reject a organ transplant?
This is because the person's immune system detects that the antigens on the cells of the organ are different or not "matched." Mismatched organs, or organs that are not matched closely enough, so causes a rejection.
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What must happen to the immune system before a transplant (especially kidneys) can happen?
It must be supressed by drugs.
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What is a disadvantage to enzymes in the body?
Work in a very narrow tempature range.
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How is body tempature measured/regulated?
The thermoregulatory centre in the brain.
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What tempature must the internal conditions be?
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What ways can the body lowers it's internal tempature?
Blood vessels carrying blood dilate more to the skin surface. This causes more heat to be carried by the blood to the skin, where it can be lost to the air.
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What is it called where the blood vessels dilate?
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What is another way in which the body can lowers it's tempature?
Hairs flatten so there's no trapped warm air, thus temperature lowers.
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How can the body increase it's tempature?
Blood vessels can shrink down again - called vasoconstriction. This reduces heat loss through the skin once the body’s temperature has returned to normal.
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What is vasoconstriction?
The constriction of blood vessels, which increases blood pressure.
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What is the level of glucose in blood controlled by?
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What happens to levels of glucose in type one diabetes?
Glucose levels rise to high levels as the hormones in body can't manage it properly.
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How is type one diabetes treated?
By insulin injections.
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What are humans responsible for polluting?
Land and waterways
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What is acid rain?
Sulfur dioxide
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What causes acid rain?
Burning fuels.
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What are two disadvantages of deforestation?
Leads to reduction in biodiversity and an increase in CO2 in enviroment.
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What is a peat bog?
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material.
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What does destruction of peat bogs cause?
Rise in CO2 levels.
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What may a increase of the worlds temperature by only a few C do?
Rise in sea levels - Reduce biodiversity - Cause a change in migration patterns.
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Name a type of biofuel
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How can ethanol based fuels be produced?
By anaerobic fermentation of sugars and plants.
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What is biogas mainly?
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What do short food chains make food production?
More effecient
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What fungus produces mycoprotein?
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Card 2


What is the simpler definition of osmosis?


Movement of water

Card 3


What is active transport?


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Card 4


Where does active transport get energy from?


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Card 5


What can be absorbed by active transport?


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