Biology B3 3.6 Treatment and temperature issues.

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What are the two main treatments for kidney failure?
Dialysis and kidney transplants.
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What are the practical issues that doctors need to consider when deciding on whether a patient should continue to have dialysis or receive a kidney transplant?
The patient's general health, how long the patient has been on dialysis, total cost of treatment (continuation of dialysis vs expensive operation and treatment with immunosuppressant drugs), transplant operation risks and donor kidney availability.
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What are the ethical issues that doctors need to consider when deciding on whether a patient should continue dialysis or receive a kidney transplant?
Should everyone be automatically on a transplant register or should they opt out, should people be paid to be donors, should people pay for a new kidney to jump the queue?
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What are the benefits to carrying a donor card?
Carrying a donor card means that a family does not have to make a distressing decision about organ donation immediately after the death of a close relative.
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How can extreme temperatures be very dangerous for survival?
Because the body's enzymes do not work properly.
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Small children have a large surface area to volume ratio, what are the implications of this?
They transfer energy to surroundings very quickly in cold conditions and dehydrate very quickly in hot conditions.
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What happens if a small child's body temperature is too low?
The respiratory enzymes work too slowly and too little energy is released.
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What happens if a small child dehydrates?
They cannot cool down and they overheat, which means enzymes denature.
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Why do elderly people suffer from hypothermia in cold conditions?
Because they do not move around much to release energy from respiration in the muscles.
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What have explorers in extreme environments have to learn?
How to recognise the symptoms of hypothermia and dehydration.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the practical issues that doctors need to consider when deciding on whether a patient should continue to have dialysis or receive a kidney transplant?

Back

The patient's general health, how long the patient has been on dialysis, total cost of treatment (continuation of dialysis vs expensive operation and treatment with immunosuppressant drugs), transplant operation risks and donor kidney availability.

Card 3

Front

What are the ethical issues that doctors need to consider when deciding on whether a patient should continue dialysis or receive a kidney transplant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the benefits to carrying a donor card?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How can extreme temperatures be very dangerous for survival?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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