Biology B3

  • Created by: Cour.24
  • Created on: 09-05-18 16:50
What are pathogens?
microorganisms that cause infectious diseases.
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Name 4 main types of Pathogens
Viruses,Bacteria, Protists and fungi
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How might pathogens spread?
Direct contact, water and air.
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Where do bacteria and viruses reproduce?
they reproduce rapidly inside the body
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How do bacteria affect the body?
Produce toxins that damage tissues and make us feel ill.
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How do viruses affect the body?
Live and reproduce inside cells, causing cell damage.
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What are measles and how do you know if someone has it?
Measles is a viral disease showing symptoms of fever and a red skin rash.
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Why are children vaccinated against measles?
Measles is a serious illness that can be fatal if complications arise.
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How are measles spread?
Inhalation of droplets from sneezes and coughs.
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What are the initial signs of a HIV infection?
HIV initially causes a flu-like illness
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What happens to someone with HIV unless controlled by antiretroviral drugs?
The virus attacks the body's immune cells.
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What happens at the later stages of HIV
A body can no longer deal with other infections or cancers.
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How is HIV spread?
Sexual contact or an exchange of body fluids such as blood.
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What is Tobacco mosaic virus?
I widespread plant pathogen affecting many species of plants including tomatoes.
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What are the signs to look for when plants have TMV?
It gives a distinctive 'mosaic' pattern of discolouration on the leaves which affects the growth of the plant due to lack of photosynthesis.
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what is salmonella?
Salmonella food poisioning is spread by bacteria ingested in food, or on food prepared in unhygienic conditions.
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What are the symptoms of salmonella.
fever, abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea are caused by the bacteria and the toxins they secrete.
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What is gonorrhoea? What are the symptoms?
a thick yellow or green discharge from the vagina or penis and pain by urinating.
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How might gonorrhoea be treated?
With the antibiotic penicillin
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How is gonorrhoea spread?
By sexual contact
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How is the spread of gonorrhoea controlled or treated?
antibiotics or a barrios method of contraception such as a condom
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What is rose black spot?
Purple or black spots develop on the leaf which often turn yellow and drop early.
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What does rose black spot do to a plant?
it affects the growth of the plant as photosynthesis is reduced
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How is rose black spot spread?
It is spread in the environment through water or wind
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How can rose black spot be treated?
Removing and destroying the affected leaves.
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What type of pathogen causes malaria
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What are the symptoms of malaria
Causes recurrent episodes of fever and can be fatal
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How is malaria controlled?
By using mosquito nets and preventing the mosquitoes from breeding
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Name the bodies 4 non specific defence symptoms
Skin, nose,trachea, bronchi and stomach
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What happens if a pathogen enters the body
The immune system tries to destroy the pathogen
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What are the 3 main ways that white blood cells defend against pathogens?
phagocytosis, antibody production and antitoxin production
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what is a vaccination?
introducing small quantities of dead or inactive forms of a pathogen into the body to stimulate the white blood cells to produce antibodies
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what happens if the same pathogen as the vaccination re-enters the body?
White blood cells respond quickly to reproduce the correct antibodies preventing infection
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How do antibiotics such as penicillin help cure bacteria disease?
killing infected bacteria inside the body
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Can any antibiotics be given for any bacterial infection?
The use of antibiotics has greatly reduced deaths from infectious bacterial diseases.
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What has the use of antibiotics had on infectious bacteria diseases?
greatly reduced deaths from infectious bacterial diseases.
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Can antibiotics kill viral pathogens?
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What do painkillers do?
Painkillers and other medicines are used to treat the symptoms of disease but do not kill pathogens.
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Why is it difficult to produce drugs to destroy viruses.
It is difficult without damaging the bodies tissues.
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Traditionally drugs were extracted from plants and microorganisms. Where does the heart drug digitalis come from?
The heart drug digitalis originates from foxgloves
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Traditionally drugs were extracted from plants and microorganisms.Where does aspirin originate from?
From a willow tree
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Traditonally drugs were extracted from plants and microorganisms . Where does penicillin come from?
Discovered by Alexander Fleming from the penicillin mould
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Where are most new drugs synthesised nowadays?
By chemists in the pharmaceutical industry however the starting point may still be a chemical extracted from a plant.
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What must happen to all drugs before they can be released to the public
Tested and trialled so they are safe and effective.
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What are new drugs tested for?
Tested for toxicity, efficacy and dose.
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How are preclinical drug tests performed in a lab
Using cells, tissues and live animals
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Clicnical trials use healthy volunteers and patients what is the first stage of drug testing in humans?
Very low doses are given out at the start of the clinical trial.
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If the drug is found to be safe what happens next?
Further trials are carried out to find the optimum dose for the drug
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What is a double blind trial?
where some patients are given a placebo without knowing.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Name 4 main types of Pathogens


Viruses,Bacteria, Protists and fungi

Card 3


How might pathogens spread?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Where do bacteria and viruses reproduce?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How do bacteria affect the body?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


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