Biology, B2.1.5 Cell differentiation

  • Created by: jodie.g
  • Created on: 30-05-18 13:12
Why do cells differentiate?
They become specialised to perform certain jobs more effectively.
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Name a specialised animal cell
Sperm cell/fat cell/red blood cell/ciliated cells
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Name the adaptations of a sperm cell
They have flagellum, lots of mitochondria and acrosome
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What are flagellum and what do they do?
Flagellum are tails and they whip from side to side to propel the sperm to the ovum
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Why do sperm have lots of mitochondria?
Respiration occurs in the mitochondria and the reactions of respiration transfer energy so the flagellum can move.
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What is an acrosome?
An acrosome stores digestive enzymes which break down the outer layer of the ovum to allow sperm to transfer its genetic material.
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Name the adaptations of a fat cell
They have a small layer of cytoplasm and can expand up to 1000 times their normal size.
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Name the adaptations of a red blood cell
Biconcave shape, packed full of haemoglobin, no nucleus
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Why does a red blood cell have no nucleus?
It maximises the space to contain more haemoglobin molecules
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What is haemoglobin?
Haemoglobin is a protein that binds to oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin which is bright red (hence the bright red colour of cell)
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Explain the biconcave shape of red blood cells
Red blood cells are pushed in on both sides to form a biconcave shape which increases the surface area to volume ratio. This speeds up the rate of diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide in and out of the cell
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What is a ciliated cell?
Ciliated cells are found in your airways and trap dirt and bacteria
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What are cilia?
Cilia are tiny hairs on the top of the cells which sweep the mucus away from your lungs to the back of your throat.
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What happens to the mucus once it's swept by the cilia?
Mucus is swallowed and any bacteria is killed in your stomach.
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Name a specialised plant cell
Palisade cells
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What is the function of a palisade cell?
Palisade cells are specialised to carry out photosynthesis
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How are palisade cells specialised?
They are found near the surface of the leaf so they absorb more light/full of mitochondria which is required for photosynthesis/regular shape to allow close packing within the leaf/tall and large surface area so they can absorb lots of light
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name a specialised animal cell

Back

Sperm cell/fat cell/red blood cell/ciliated cells

Card 3

Front

Name the adaptations of a sperm cell

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are flagellum and what do they do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do sperm have lots of mitochondria?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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