Biology - B2 - Topic 2

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what is diffusion?
the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
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what is respiration?
the process of breaking down glucose to release energy, which happens in every living cell
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what is energy from respiration sed for?
To build up larger molecules (e.g. proteins). To contract muscles. To maintain a steady body temperature.
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where does the glucose needed for respiration come from?
breaking down food in the digestive system
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why do all cells in the body have capillaries nearby?
to supply them with O2 and glucose and to remove CO2
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what do muscles need to contract?
energy
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when do you start respiring anaerobically?
when your body can't supply enough oxygen to the muscles
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what is the equation for cardiac output?
heart rate x stroke volume
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what is the amount of oxygen required to 'pay back' you oxygen debt called?
excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)
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how do plants produce glucose ('food')?
by photosynthesis
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what are the leaves of plants for?
photosynthesis
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where does photosynthesis happen in the leaves?
in the chloroplasts
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what do chloroplasts contain that absorbs energy in sunlight?
chlorophyll
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what is the equation for photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide + water ---------> glucose + oxygen
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how are leaves adapted for photosynthesis?
Broad = large surface area exposed to light. Contain lots of chlorophyll to absorb light. Have lots of stomata = open and close to let O2 and CO2 in and out (also water vapour [transpiration])
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what is a limiting factor?
something that stops a reaction from happening any faster
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what can be the limiting factor in photosynthesis?
light intensity, temperature, CO2 concentration
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what is osmosis?
the movement of water molecules across a partial permeable membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
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what is the practical to show osmosis?
potato cylinders in pure water and different concentrations of sugar solution
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how do root hair cells take in water?
by osmosis
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why is a root being covered in microscopic root hair cells beneficial?
it provided a bigger surface area for absorbing the water
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how do root hair cells take in minerals and why?
by active transport becasuse there is a higher concentration of minerals in the cell than the soil so diffusion wont got them into the plant
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how does active transport work?
by using energy from respiration to help the plant to pull minerals into the plant AGAINST THE CONCENTRATION GRADIENT
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what to xylem tubes transport?
water and minerals from the root to the rest of the plant
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what do the phloem tubes transport?
sugars from the leaves to growing and storage tissue
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what is transpiration caused by?
the evaporation and diffusion of water from inside the leaves
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how does the transpiration stream help photosynthesis?
it provides a constant supply of water for photosynthesis
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what is transpiration?
the loss of water from a plant - water evaporated off leaves, more water is drawn up the plant through the xylem vessels to replace it
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what is a habitat?
a place where an organism lives
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what are pooters for and how do they work?
for collecting ground insects - sucking on tube and direct other tube at insect which is pulled into the pot
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what are pitfall traps for and how do they work?
to collect ground insects - hole in ground with top partly open that insects fall into
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what are sweep nets for and how do they work?
to collect animals in long grass - stand still and sweep the net through the grass left to right once
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what are pond nets for and how do they work?
for collecting animals from ponds and rivers - stand still and sweep net along bottom of pond/river and turn out into a tray
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what is a quadrat for and how does it work?
to study the distribution of small organisms - place on ground on random point, count organisms then repeat in another random point
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how do you work out population size?
work out mean number or organisms per m2, then multiply the mean by the total are of habitat in m2
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name 3 environmental factors affecting organism distribution
temperature, light intensity, soil pH
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what is respiration?

Back

the process of breaking down glucose to release energy, which happens in every living cell

Card 3

Front

what is energy from respiration sed for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

where does the glucose needed for respiration come from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

why do all cells in the body have capillaries nearby?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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