Biology B2

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What three components are found in plant cells, but not in animal cells?
Cellulose cell walls; Vacuoles; Chloroplasts
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What is the function of cellulose?
Cellulose cell walls provide support to the plant cell.
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What is the function of vacuoles?
Vacuoles store cell sap in a plant cell.
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What is the function of a chloroplast?
Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll which is needed for a plant to photosynthesise to make glucose and energy.
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Describe the structure of DNA.
DNA is double stranded and coiled into a double helix shape. It has four bases: A, T, C, and G.
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During fertilisation, what does a fused sperm cell and egg cell form?
A diploid zygote.
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What are three ethical concerns about cloning?
Fear of creating the 'perfect' race; Possibility of abnormalities occurring in clones; Clones do not have parents.
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What can stem cells be used for in medicine?
Stem cells can be used to replace damaged cells and tissues and treat some diseases
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What are proteins made from?
Amino acids
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How do enzymes function?
Enzymes fuction like a lock and key. The enzyme is the lock and the substrate is the key. The substrate fits into the enzyme; an enzyme is specific for a certain substrate- Like a lock and key.
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What are two ways that enzymes can be denatured?
Exposed to extreme temperatures or P.H.
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What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon dioxide + Water (Energy released)
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose --> Lactic acid (Energy released)
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How are leaves adapted for photosynthesis?
They have a large surface area to absorb sunlight.
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What is the word equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon Dioxide + Water --> Glucose + Oxygen
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What is "osmosis"?
Diffusion of water from a high concentration to a low concentration through a semi-permeable membrane.
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Describe water transport in plants.
Water enters a plants roots by osmosis. It is then transported to the leaves in xylem vessels via a transport called transpiration. The transport is driven by evaporation from stomata in the leaves.
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What four components are found in Human blood?
White blood cells; Red blood cells; Plasma; Platelets
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What are the two types of white blood cell?
Phagocytes; Lymphocyte.
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What was the main achievement of the Human Genome Project?
The sequence of DNA bases of the Human Genome was identified.
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What three enzymes are produced in the digestive system?
Carbohydrase; Lipase; Protease
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What is Peristalsis?
Peristalsis is the contraction and relaxation of the oesophagus and small intestine to propel food forwards.
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How is the Pentadactyl limb used as evidence for evolution?
The pentadactyl limb has a pattern of limb bones found in all four legged vertebrate. Similarity in the bones indicate all four legged vertebrate have evolved from a common ancestor.
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Where is bile produced and what does it do?
Bile is produced in the liver; it neutralises stomach acid and emulsifies fat.
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Card 2

Front

What is the function of cellulose?

Back

Cellulose cell walls provide support to the plant cell.

Card 3

Front

What is the function of vacuoles?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the function of a chloroplast?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the structure of DNA.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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