Biology B2

  • Created by: Cour.24
  • Created on: 02-05-18 16:41
What are the basic building blocks for all living things?
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What is the name given to a group of cells with similar structure and function?
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What is the name given to a group of tissues performing specific functions?
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What is the name of a collection of organs organised into a specific system?
Organ systems
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What does the digestive system do?
Several organs work together to digest and absorb food
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What do enzymes do?
Enzymes speed up specific reactions in living organisms.
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What do digestive enzymes do?
Convert food into small soluble molecules that can be absorbed into the blood stream.
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Carbohydrase is an enzyme.What does it do?
Carbohydrase breaks down carbohydrates to sugar.
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Protease is an enzyme. What does it do?
Protease breaks down proteins into Amino Acids.
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Lipase is an enzyme. What does it do?
Lipase breaks down lipids to glycerol and fatty acids.
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What are the products of digestion used for?
The products of digestion are used to build new carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
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Where is bile made and stored in the body?
Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
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Why is bile an alkaline?
It is an alkaline to neutralise hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
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What does bile do?
It mixes fat with water to form small droplets which increases the surface area.
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What does an increase in surface area and alkaline conditions do to help the lipase enzyme.
The alkaline conditions and large surface area increase the rate of fat that is broken down by lipase enzyme.
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What is the heart?
An organ that pumps blood around the body.
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What does the right ventricle do in the heart?
Pumps blood to the lungs where gas exchange takes place.
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What does the left ventricle do in the heart?
Pumps blood around the rest of the body.
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How is natural resting heart rate controlled in the heart?
A group of cells located in the right atrium that act as a pacemaker.
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what is an artificial pace maker?
Electrical devices used to correct irregularities in the heart rate.
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What are the three types of blood vessels in the heart?
Arteries, Veins and Capillaries.
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What is blood?
Blood is a tissue consisting of plasma. In the plasma are red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
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What is coronary heart disease?
Layers of fatty material build up inside the coronary arteries, narrowing them.
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How does coronary heart disease affect the body?
This reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries, resulting in a lack of oxygen.
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How does a surgeon treat coronary heart disease?
Stents to keep the coronary arteries open.
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What medicine might a doctor prescribe for someone with high cholesterol levels?
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How might cholesterol impact a persons heart valves?
The heart may develop a leak.
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How might we treat heart failure in a person?
Heart and lungs can be transplanted
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What do artificial hearts do?
To keep patients alive while waiting for a heart transplant.
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What is health?
Health is a state of physical and mental well being
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What two types of diseases are major causes of ill health?
Communicable and non-communicable diseases
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What other factors might impact a person's physical or mental health?
Diet, stress and life situations.
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Name 4 ways that diseases may interact:
Defects in the immune system means that an individual is more likely to suffer from infectious diseases. Viruses living in cells can be the trigger for cancers. Immune reactions initially caused by a pathogen can trigger allergies.
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Carried on
Severe physical ill health can lead to mental illness.
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What risk factors are likely to impact a person's health?
Aspects of a persons lifestyle. substances in the person's body or environment.
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Provide some examples of mechanisms that might lead to ill health?
The effects of diet, smoking and exercise on cardiovascular disease. Obesity as a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes. The effect of alcohol on the liver and brain function. The effect of smoking on lung disease and lung cancer.
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Carried on
The effects of smoking and alcohol on unborn babies. Many diseases are caused by the interaction of a number of factors.
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What is a benign tumour?
benign tumors are growths of abnormal cells. They do not invade other parts of the body.
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What is a malignant tumour?
Malignant tumours cells are cancers. They invade neighbouring tissues and spread.
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Name 5 Plant tissues.
Epidermal tissues, palisade mesophll, spongy mesophyll, xylem and phloem, meristem tissue.
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What are roots, stems and leaves in a plant?
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What do root hair cells do in a plant?
Uptake of water by osmosis and mineral ions by active transport.
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How is the xylem constructed?
It is composed of hollow tubes strengthened adapted for the transport of water in the transpiration stream.
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What do the stomata and guard cells do under the plant leaf?
control gas exchange and water loss.
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What do phloem tissues do in a plant?
Transports dissolved sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant for immediate use or storage.
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What is the movement of food molecules through a phloem tissue called?
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How are phloem constructed?
Phloem is composed of tubes of elongated cells.
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How does cell sap move from one phloem to the next in plants?
cell sap can move from one phloem cell to the next through pores in the end walls.
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Card 3


What is the name given to a group of tissues performing specific functions?


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Card 4


What is the name of a collection of organs organised into a specific system?


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Card 5


What does the digestive system do?


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