Biology - B2

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  • Created by: L_Georgie
  • Created on: 31-01-16 13:37
What are the three types micro-organisms?
Bacteria, viruses and fungi.
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What causes the symptoms you feel when you are ill?
Cell damage (due to proteins produced by some bacteria) or toxins that other micro-organisms produce.
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What does bacteria need in order to reproduce?
They need a source of nutrients and warm moist conditions.
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What do viruses need in order to reproduce?
Viruses need other cells to reproduce because they use parts of the other cells to make copies of themselves.
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If a one bacteria reproduces every 30 mins how many bacteria will there be after 2 hours?
16 (1x2=2 2x2=4 4x2=8 8x2=16)
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What is the role of your immune system?
The role of your immune system is to deal with any infectious micro-organisms that enter the body.
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What does a phagocyte do?
A phagocyte is a type of white blood cell that engulfs and digests anything that is not meant to be in your body.
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What does a lymphocyte do?
A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell that produces specific antibodies that attach on to antigens and 'disable or destroy' the micro-organism.
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What are antigens?
Antigens are substances that trigger the immune systems response and are usually protein molecules found on the surface of micro-organisms.
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Why do we need specific antibodies?
Because all antigens are different and so you need different antibodies to match with different antigens.
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What do lymphocytes do once it recognises the antigens on a micro-organism?
It divides to make more identical cells which makes lots of the right antigen to fight the infection.
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What are the three things that antibodies can do once they attach onto a micro-organism?
They can mark the micro-organism and group them together so that phagocytes can engulf and digest them easier, they can neutralise the viruses or toxins or they can kill them directly.
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What are memory cells?
Memory cells are white blood cells that stay around in the body after the original infection has been fought off.
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What do memory cells do if the same antigen enters the body again?
They reproduce very quickly and then produce the same antibodies to fight the micro-organism a second time but this time they kill it before you get ill.
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What does immunity mean?
It means that you are no longer effected by a micro-organism with specific antigens because your body kills it before you feel ill.
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What gets injected into your body when you get an vaccination and why?
Dead or inactive micro-organisms get injected because they still have the same antigens as the disease causing ones but you won't get ill.
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What happens when you get a vaccination?
Lymphocytes produce the specific antibodies for the antigens which kill the micro-organism, then some of them stay in your body as memory cells so if you ever get a micro-organism with the same antigens it will be able to produce antibodies rapidly.
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What is 'herd immunity'?
Herd immunity is when lots of people are immune to a disease due to vaccinations which makes the disease hard to spread around people that don't have immunity because there isn't may of them. This could lead to certain diseases being wiped out.
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Why can vaccines and drugs never be completely safe?
Because people can have different side effects to because of genetic differences.
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What are antimicrobials?
Antimicrobials are chemicals that can inhibit the growth of micro-organisms or kill them without seriously damaging your own body cells.
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What are antimicrobials used for?
to help your body clear up infections that your immune system is having trouble with.
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What are Antibiotics?
Antibiotics are a type of antimicrobial that can kill bacteria (can't kill viruses or fungi)
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How can micro-organisms become resistant to antimicrobials?
They could get a random gene mutation which could lead to it being affected less by antimicrobials. This means that it can then reproduce passing on the gene mutation making lots of the micro-organisms resistant to drugs.
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How can we try to prevent micro-organisms becoming resistant?
Only use antibiotics when you really need to use them and taking all of the antibiotics a doctor prescribes to you.
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How are new drugs tested?
They are first developed using human cells in a lab then they get tested on at least two different species of live mammal and finally they are then tested on humans.
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Why are drugs tested on live mammals before humans?
To test how the drug reacts when it is in a whole organism and to prevent harmful substances or side effects for the human.
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What is it called when they test the drug on humans?
Clinical tests
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Why do they test drugs on healthy people before the sick people?
Just in case it has any harmful side effects when the body is working normally and sick people are more vulnerable to possible damage done by the drug.
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What is a placebo and why are they used?
A placebo is a 'fake' treatment that is used in order to compare how the drug does compared to not having one.
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When it is not suitable to use a placebo?
When the patient is seriously ill because you are potentially preventing them receiving the benifits of the new drug.
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What is a 'blind' trial?
In blind trials the patients don't know if they're been given the drug or a placebo but the doctors do.
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What is an advantage of 'blind' trials?
If the patient knows that they are getting the drug they might feel better due to psychological reasons rather than the actual drug. 'Blind' trials eliminate these effects.
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What is a 'double-blind' trial?
The doctor/scientist and patient doesn't know who is getting real drugs and who is getting a placebo.
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What is an advantage of 'double-blind' trials?
The doctor/scientist monitoring the results aren't influenced by their knowledge of who has and hasn't had the new drug.
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What is a 'open-label' trial?
An 'open-label' trail is where both the patients and the doctor/scientist are aware if they are getting a placebo or the real drug.
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How is blood supplied to the heart?
Blood is supplied to the heart by two coronary arteries, which branch from the base of the aorta.
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What are the three major types of blood vessel?
Arteries, veins and capillaries.
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What is the arteries job?
Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart and to the body cells. (Including the heart)
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Describe the structure of an artery and why they are like that.
Arteries have walls that are strong and elastic, they have to be like that because blood gets pumped out of the heart at high pressure. They also have a small lumen.
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What is the veins job?
Veins carry de-oxygenated blood back to the heart.
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Describe the structure of a vein and why they are like that.
Veins have thin walls (not much pressure), they have a bigger lumen than arteries to help the blood flow more easily. They also have valves to keep the blood flowing in the right direction.
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What are capillaries and what is there job?
Capillaries are branches of arteries. There job is to carry the blood really close to every cell in the body to exchange substances with them (nutrients and oxygen in, waste like carbon dioxide out)
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Describe the structure of capillaries and why they are like that.
They have really thin (one cell thick) walls that are permeable so substances can diffuse in and out. The thin walls increases the rate of erosion.
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What is the definition of hear rate?
The number of times your heart beats in one minute (measured in BMP)
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What is the definition of pulse rate?
The number of times an artery pulsates in one minute.
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What are you measuring when you measure blood pressure?
The pressure of the blood against the walls of an artery.
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Blood pressure measurements have two values what does the higher are lower values actually mean?
The higher value is the pressure of the blood when the heart contracts. The lower value is the pressure of the blood when the heart relaxes.
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How can high blood pressure increase the chance of heart disease?
The inner lining of arteries can get damaged due to the high pressure of the blood flowing through it.
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Why is it bad for you to get fatty deposits in arteries?
They can build up and damage areas of the artery which restricts blood flow and cause blood pressure to increase.
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What happens if a fatty deposit breaks through the inner lining of an artery?
A blood clot may form around it, and the blood clot may block the artery completely or break off and block another artery.
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What happens if the coronary artery becomes blocked?
The heart muscle will be totally cut off from it's blood supply, receiving no oxygen. This causes a heart attack.
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What five lifestyle factors increase the chance of heart disease?
Poor diet, smoking, stress, misuse of illegal drugs and excessive alcohol drinking.
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How does poor diet increase the chance of heart disease?
A diet that is high in salt increases the risk of heart disease because it increases blood pressure. Cholesterol makes up a large part of fatty deposits that can form in arteries, high blood cholesterol is linked to foods high in saturated fat.
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How does stress increase the chance of heart disease?
If a person is stressed for a long period of time it can increase their blood pressure and so increase the risk of heart disease.
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How does smoking increase the chance of heart disease?
Carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke reduces the amount of oxygen the blood can transport and if the heart muscle doesn't receive enough oxygen it can lead to a heart attack.
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How does misuse of illegal drugs increase the chance of heart disease?
Drugs can cause an increase in heart rate which causes an increase in blood pressure.
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How does excessive alcohol drinking increase the chance of heart disease?
Drinking too much alcohol increases the risk of heart disease because it increases blood pressure.
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What reduces the chance of developing heart disease and why?
Regular moderate exercise reduces the risk because it burns fat and strengthens the heart muscle.
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Why is heart disease more common in industrialised countries?
Because they can afford more fast food and travel in cars a lot.
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What is epidemiology?
Epidemiology is the study of patterns of diseases and the factors that affect them.
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How can epidemiological studies identify the factors that increase the risk of heart disease?
You could study a group of people who all died from heart disease and look for similarities in their lifestyles and genetic make up, to see if they are anything in common.
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What is homoeostasis?
Homoeostasis is about balancing inputs and outputs to maintain a constant internal enviroment.
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What are all automatic control systems made up off? (Three components)
Receptors, processing centre and effectors.
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When would your body use negative feedback?
When the level of something, like water or temperature, gets too high or too low your body uses negative feedback to bring it back to normal.
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How do the kidneys help balance substances in the body?
They filter small molecules from the blood including water, sugar, salt and waste. They reabsorb various things like sugar and as much salt and water that the body requires.
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How does the kidneys control water levels and what does this depend on?
They produce dilute or concentrated urine.The concentration of blood plasma.
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How does external temperature effect the amount of water reabsorbed in the kidneys and concentration of urine?
If it is hot you sweat. Your sweat contains water so sweating causes water loss. Meaning that when it is hot the kidneys will reabsorb more water back into the blood. This causes small amounts of high concentrated urine to be produced.
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How does exercise effect the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys and the concentration of urine?
When you exercise you get hotter and so you sweat to cool down and because sweat contains water then your kidneys will reabsorb more water meaning you'll only produce a small amount of concentrated urine.
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How does intake of fluid and salts effect the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys and the concentration of urine?
Not drinking enough water or eating to much salt will produce concentrated urine because water will be reabsorbed. Drinking lots of water will produce lots of dilute urine because that much water won't be reabsorbed in the kidney.
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What is the name of the hormone that controls that concentration of urine and what is the name of the gland that releases it?
The hormone is called anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) It is released by the pituitary gland.
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What is the brains job in controlling water content?
The brain monitors the water content and instructs the pituitary gland to release ADH into the blood according to how much is needed.
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What happens when the pituitary gland produces little ADH and a lot ADH?
When little ADH is produced little water is absorbed back up by the kidney. When a lot of ADH is produced then a lot of water is reabsorbed back by the kidney.
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What drugs can effect ADH production?
Alcohol and ecstasy
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How does alcohol effect ADH production?
Alcohol suppresses the amount of ADH produced meaning that the kidneys reabsorbs less water and more water passes out as urine.
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How does ecstasy effect ADH production?
Ecstasy causes the production of ADH to increase, so the kidneys reabsorb less water.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What causes the symptoms you feel when you are ill?

Back

Cell damage (due to proteins produced by some bacteria) or toxins that other micro-organisms produce.

Card 3

Front

What does bacteria need in order to reproduce?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do viruses need in order to reproduce?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

If a one bacteria reproduces every 30 mins how many bacteria will there be after 2 hours?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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