Biology B1.2 Medicine and Drugs

Everything you need to know for AQA Biology B1.2 Medicine and Drugs (except for advantages and disadvantages of drugs).

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  • Created by: 11fgrant
  • Created on: 21-01-16 19:43
What is a DRUG?
A drug is a chemical that affects the mind or body.
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What can the term 'drug' be used to describe?
A MEDICINE (a chemical used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of disease or other abnormal condition) and a RECREATIONAL DRUG (a chemical substance used for its affects on the brain).
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What was THALIDOMIDE?
Thalidomide was a drug developed to help people with sleeping disorders. It was discovered to help pregnant women overcome morning sickness during the first 3 months of pregnancy.
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What happened during the first 3 months of pregnancy to women who took thalidomide?
During this time, the embryo is developing it's limbs. Thalidomide affected this development and babies were born with severe limb deformities.
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What happened after this discovery was made?
This brought about a change in the law. Nowadays, drugs must be tested for the use they are to have. Thalidomide is banned for use with pregnant women but it has been found to be useful in treating leprosy and some blood cancers.
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Why are new medicines needed?
New medicines are needed to improve existing medicines and to treat new diseases (e.g. bird flu and swine flu).
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What MUST a new drug be?
A new drug must be effective, safe, stable and removable.
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What does it mean when it says a new drug must be EFFECTIVE?
A new drug must be effective to cure you or make you feel better.
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What does it mean when it says a new drug must be SAFE?
A new drug must be safe which means it mustn't be toxic or have serious health side effects.
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What does it mean when it says a new drug must be STABLE?
A new drug must be stable which means it mustn't break down or change in an unpredictable way.
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What does it mean when it says a new drug must be REMOVABLE??
When it says a new drug must be removable, it means that it must be able to be removed from the body.
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What happens before a new drug is released?
Before a drug can be released, to the public, it must undergo trials/testing.
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What are the 2 phases of drug testing?
Pre-Clinical Phase and Clinical Phase
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What happens in the PRE-CLINICAL PHASE? (Stages 1 and 2)
1) Researchers target a disease and develop several possible drugs that may fight it. 2)Possible drugs are tested on cells, tissues and whole organs to see if they are toxic.
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What happens in the PRE-CLINICAL PHASE? (Stage 3)
3) Those that pass are tested on animals to see how they affect whole organisms and to test for the correct dose.
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What happens in the CLINICAL PHASE? (Stages 4 and 5)
4) A small number of healthy volunteers are given low doses of the new drug to check for side effects. 5) Small numbers of patients are given the drug to check whether the drug treats the disease.
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What happens in the CLINICAL PHASE? (Stages 6 and 7)
6) Large numbers of patients are given the drug to investigate the best way of giving the drug. 7) The drug is licensed for a specific use for humans.
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What is CHOLESTEROL?
Cholesterol is made in the liver. It travels in the blood with a protein and the combination is called a HIPPOPROTEIN.
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What are the 2 types of HIPPOPROTEIN?
High Density Hippoprotein (HDL) and Low Density Hippoprotein (LDL)
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What is HIGH DENSITY HIPPOPROTEIN?
This removes cholesterol from the blood by taking it back to the liver. Sometimes called 'good cholesterol'.
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What is LOW DENSITY HIPPOPROTEIN?
This carries cholesterol from the liver to your cells. Also known as 'bad cholesterol'.
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What could happen if you have too much cholesterol?
Too much cholesterol can cause problems by being deposited in the lining of arteries where it causes an obstruction.
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What is a PLAQUE?
A plaque is a collection of cholesterol.
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What causes high levels of cholesterol?
High levels of cholesterol can be caused by factors you can control and factors you can't control.
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What are some examples of factors you CAN control?
Examples are; eating a diet rich in saturated fats, being overweight or obese and lack of regular exercise.
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What are some examples of factors you CAN'T control?
Examples are; age (more of a problem for older people), gender (more of a problem for men) and inherited factors (some people just naturally make more cholesterol).
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What are some example of LEGAL DRUGS?
Alcohol (Addictive), Caffeine (Addictive), Nicotine (Addictive) and Paracetemol (Non-Addictive)
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What are some example of ILLEGAL DRUGS?
Cocaine (Addictive), Heroin (Addictive), Cannabis (Non-Addictive) and LSD (Non-Addictive)
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How are drugs used in sport?
Some athletes use performance-enhancing drugs to help them compete more successfully. Many use ANABOLIC STEROIDS which help them to develop bigger muscles.
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What is a PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING DRUG?
A Performance-Enhancing Drug is a drug that can be taken to enhance your natural ability. The may be legally available or illegal but all are banned by sporting regulation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What can the term 'drug' be used to describe?

Back

A MEDICINE (a chemical used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of disease or other abnormal condition) and a RECREATIONAL DRUG (a chemical substance used for its affects on the brain).

Card 3

Front

What was THALIDOMIDE?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happened during the first 3 months of pregnancy to women who took thalidomide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happened after this discovery was made?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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