Biology B1.1 Keeping Healthy

Everything you need to know for AQA Biology B1.1 Keeping Healthy

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  • Created by: 11fgrant
  • Created on: 21-01-16 18:37
What are PROTEINS required for?
Proteins are required for growth and repair.
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What are CARBOHYDRATES required for?
Carbohydrates are the most important source of energy released during respiration.
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What are FATS required for?
Fats are also used to release energy, they act as a storage substance beneath the skin and help to keep you warm.
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What is WATER required for?
Water is used to maintain the correct fluid balance in your body. If you do not drink enough, you will be dehydrated.
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What are VITAMINS required for?
You need vitamins (e.g. Vitamin C, Vitamin D and Vitamin B12) in small quantities for a healthy body and to prevent deficiency diseases like scurvy (lack of Vitamin C) or Rickets (lack of Vitamin D).
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How does food maintain a healthy body?
It allows the raw materials to build and maintain the body and releases energy - Food is stored as chemical energy for kinetic (movement) energy, heat energy and sound energy.
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What happens if you don't eat a balanced diet?
You will become MALNOURISHED.
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How many calories does the average adult man need per day?
The average adult man needs 2500 kcal per day.
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How many calories does the average adult woman need per day?
The average adult woman needs 2000 kcal per day.
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What factors affect how much energy you need?
How much energy you need depends on several factors; your age, your gender, your level of activity, the climate, your level of muscle and your metabolic rate.
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How does AGE affect how much energy you need?
Older people need less energy than younger people.
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How does GENDER affect how much energy you need?
Men require more energy than women.
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How does LEVEL OF ACTIVITY affect how much energy you need?
Physically active people need more energy, for example, athletes need between 4000 and 6000 kcals a day.
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How does CLIMATE affect how much energy you need?
You need more energy to stay warm in a cold climate.
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How does LEVEL OF MUSCLE affect how much energy you need?
Muscly people need more energy per day.
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How does METABOLIC RATE (the rate of chemical reactions in your cells) affect how much energy you need?
A slow metabolic rate means you need less energy per day. Your metabolic rate is influenced by inherited factors and how much muscle you have (muscle needs a lot of energy).
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What are PATHOGENS?
Pathogens are organisms that cause disease.
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What is a DISEASE?
A disease is the symptoms you suffer from. A disease will give the sufferer symptoms (e.g. head ache, general pain, runny nose etc.). You can take some medicines to relieve the symptoms but they will not kill the pathogens.
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What are the 3 types of pathogens?
The 3 types of pathogens are: Bacteria, Virus and Fungi.
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How big is a human cell in relation to these pathogens?
A human cell is larger than bacteria and bacteria is larger than a virus.
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What do VIRUSES do in your body? Give examples?
Viruses cannot reproduce on their own, however, they can reproduce in your cells. Antibiotics will not work on viruses as they are in your cells. Examples of viruses are chickenpox, cold and flu.
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What do BACTERIA do in your body? Give examples?
Bacteria stays on the outside of the cell and can die from antibiotics. Bubonic plague is an example of a disease caused by bacteria.
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Why are antibiotics NOT effective on viruses?
Antibiotics are effective against bacteria and fungi but they are not effective against viruses because it is difficult to set the drug inside your cells without damaging the cells.
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How can you DESTROY pathogens in your body?
To destroy the pathogen, you rely on either your immune system (for viruses) or you can take antibiotics (for fungi and bacteria).
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What is DISINFECTANT? Can it be used inside your body?
A disinfectant can be used to kill bacteria or viruses outside of the body but it is too strong for internal use.
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What is the difference between ANTIBIOTICS and DISINFECTANTS?
Antibiotics are designed to go inside your body and disinfectants are meant to stay outside of your body.
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Is there a difference between ASEPTIC and ANTISEPTIC?
Antiseptic is used outside the body whereas antibiotics are used inside the body.
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What did IGNAZ SEMMELWEIS discover?
Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-1865) discivered that more women were dying in childbirth of childbed fever with doctors handling the birth than with midwives.
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When did his breakthrough occur?
Semmelweis' breakthrough occurred when his close friend died from cutting his hand during an autopsy. He then realised that doctors perform autopsies when midwives don't.
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What happened after Semmelweis' discovery?
After his discovery, Semmelweis made all of the doctors wash their hands with chlorine-lime solution before they handled childbirth, instantly, less women were dying during childbirth.
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What procedure did Semmelweis discover?
He was a discoverer of ANTISEPTIC PROCEDURES and he was the first to realise washing your hands before handling a childbirth prevented the chances of getting childbed fever.
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How do pathogens get into your body?
Pathogens can get into your body by; breathing in droplets, breaks in the skin or contaminated food and drink.
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How do pathogens get into your body by BREATHING IN DROPLETS?
Transmission can be by; coughing which can cause the flu (a virus), sneezing which can cause the common cold (a virus) or talking which can cause tuberculosis (bacteria).
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How do pathogens get into your body by DIRECT CONTACT?
Transmission can be by skin to skin (for example, foot and mouth-a virus, mouth disease) which can cause things like genital herpes (virus).
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What is your body's FIRST LINE OF DEFENCE?
Your skin acts as a physical barrier, blood clots and the formation of a scab and sticky mucus lines our lungs and tubes (e.g. nose, mouth, ****).
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What do your WHITE BLOOD CELLS do?
White blood cells engulf and ingest, they also produce antibodies to bind to antigens (on bacteria). They also produce antitoxins which try to neutralise the toxins produced by bacteria.
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What happens when you STOP taking antibiotics when you are not supposed to?
When you stop taking antibiotics, they reproduce. When you have more antibiotics, they become more resistant and they will keep mutating and breeding and those that happen to be resistant survive and develop resistance against the antibiotics.
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What does MUTATE mean?
When your genetic code changes slightly.
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GIve two examples of different STRAINS (versions) of a certain type of virus?
Swine Flu and Bird Flu.
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What is special about the HIV virus?
The HIV virus tricks your body to get into the nucleus of your cells and tells them to make more of them.
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Card 2

Front

What are CARBOHYDRATES required for?

Back

Carbohydrates are the most important source of energy released during respiration.

Card 3

Front

What are FATS required for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is WATER required for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are VITAMINS required for?

Back

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