Biology B1.1

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What does a healthy diet contain?
The right balance of different foods that you need and the right amount of energy
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What do carbohydrates provide? Give examples
Energy for the body. Bread, rice, pasta, potatoes, cereals
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What do proteins provide? Give examples
Amino acids that we can't make ourselves. They are needed for growth development and repair of the body. They also provide energy. Meat, fish, eggs, dairy foods.
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What do fats provide? Give examples
Essential fatty acids as well as energy. It also carries important fat soluble vitamins and is important for their absorption. Fats and oils, meat, dairy foods, oily fish
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Why do we need vitamins and minerals? Give examples. What are they not?
For the healthy functioning of the body. Green vegetables, meat, nuts, peas, fruits. A nutrient
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Why do we need fibre? Give examples. What is it not?
It improves the movement of the gut contents and helps prevent constipation. Some types can also help lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels. Cereals, beans, pulses, fruit, vegetables. A nutrient
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Why do we need water? Give examples. What is it not?
It's essential for our bodies to work properly, for example regulating body temperature and cushioning the joints. All drinks and the food we eat. A nutrient.
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How does a person become malnourished?
If their diet is not balanced
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Describe how the energy input affects the mass:
If energy input = energy output, mass stays the same. If energy input> energy output, mass will increase. If energy input< energy output, mass will decrease
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What is the energy output affected by?
Exercise, parasite, growth
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What is energy output linked to? What is this?
Metabolic rate. The rate at which reactions in the body's cells are carried out
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What is the metabolic rate affected by?
Muscle to fat ratio, Exercise, Inherited factors, External temperature
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How do you work out the energy content of something?
Energy content (J/g)= Energy given out (J) / Mass of food
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What is BMI? How do you work it out? What do the tables not distinguish between?
Body Mass Index. Mass (kg) / Height squared (m). Fat and muscle
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What is you BMI if you are: underweight, a healthy weight, overweight, seriously overweight?
U: less than 18.5, H: 18.5 to 24.9, O: 25 to 27.9, SO: 28+
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Why do we need cholesterol?
It is required for the human body because it helps you produce bile acids that allow you to digest fat
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Where is cholesterol carried?
In your blood, by proteins
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What are pathogens?
Disease causing microorganisms, eg bad bacteria, viruses
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What did Semmelweis introduce?
The idea of handwashing as a method of controlling spread of infection in hospitals
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How do pathogens make us ill?
Inside the body they either produce toxins [poisons] (bacteria and viruses) or damage cells (viruses)
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What is immunity?
Immunity is when your body can fight a disease before any symptoms are evident
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What do the white blood cells produce? What do they work against?
Antibodies. The pathogen's antigens
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What are antibodies?
Our body
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What are vaccinations?
Drugs that contain part of the pathogen (dead, inactive, attenuated) that stimulate the white blood cells without getting the full disease
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What does attenuated mean?
Reduce the strength, effect or value of
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What is a drug?
A substance that has a physiological effect on the body
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What do painkillers do? Give examples
Relieve symptoms of disease but do not kill pathogens. Paracetamol
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What do antibiotics do? Give examples
Kill bacteria. They do not relieve pain. They cannot kill viruses (viruses reproduce inside cells that antibiotics cannot access). Penicillin
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What is disease caused by?
Pathogens, eg bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa
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What do antibiotics work against?
Bacteria and fungi
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What does antibiotic resistance arise through? Give examples
Overuse/unnecessary prescription, Mutated, resisitant (not immune) bacteria survive, reproduce and allow spread of resistant genes throughout the population. MRSA, C.dificile
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Card 2

Front

What do carbohydrates provide? Give examples

Back

Energy for the body. Bread, rice, pasta, potatoes, cereals

Card 3

Front

What do proteins provide? Give examples

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do fats provide? Give examples

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do we need vitamins and minerals? Give examples. What are they not?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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