Biology B1 (OCR Gateway)

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What is fitness?
The ability to do exercise
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What is meant by being healthy?
Being free from disease
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What causes blood pressure?
Contractions of the heart
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Where is the blood under the greatest pressure?
The arteries
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What is systolic pressure?
The maximum pressure the heart produces when it contracts
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What is diastolic pressure?
The minimum pressure when the heart relaxes
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What can high blood pressue cause?
A stroke, brain or kidney damage
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What can low blood pressure cause?
Dizziness and fainting
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What does cholesterol do to the arteries?
Sticks to the walls of arteries- slows down/ blocks the flow of blood
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How can carbon monoxide lead to a heart attack?
Reduces the amount of oxygen carried in the blood
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What kind of drug is nicotine?
A stimulant- speeds up heart rate and makes blood vessels narrower
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What is our diet?
The food that we eat
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What is a vegan?
Someone who does not eat any foods from animals, including milk, cheese and eggs
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Name one food Jewish people cannot eat.
Pork
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Where are excess carbohydrates stored?
Stored in the liver as glycogen or converted to fats
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What happens to excess amino acids?
Cannot be stored and are excreted in the urine
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What is protein needed for?
Growth and repair
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What is kwashiorkor?
A disease caused by protein shortage in the diet
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Name two symptoms of kwashiorkor.
Very little protein in the blood, leading to swelling of the abdomen
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What is a pathogen?
An organism that causes disease
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What are infectious diseases?
Diseases which can spread from one person to another
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What is the role of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?
Kills pathogens in the food
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What is a vector?
An animal which carries an organism that causes disease, eg mosquitos
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How is cancer caused?
By cells which have lost the ability to stop dividing
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What are antibiotics?
Drugs that kill bacteria
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What are antigens?
Protein molecules found on the surface of cells
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What is a placebo?
An inactive substance containing no medication which is used as a control for drug testing
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How do we detect things around us?
Our sense organs, eg our eyes detect light
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What is monocular vision?
Vision in one eye- provides a wider field of view but poor judgement of distance
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What is binocular vision?
Vision in two eyes- provides a narrower field of view but better judgement of distance
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Where are the light sensitive receptors of the eye found?
The retina
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What is accomodation?
Process of the eye focusing on near and distant objects
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What is a reflex action?
A fast, automatic response to a stimulus
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What do electrical impulses do?
Carry information round the nervous system
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What is a synapse?
The space between two neurones
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Name the five drug groups.
Depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, painkillers, performance enhancers
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What is a drug?
A substance which changes the chemical processes in the body
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What is nicotine?
The addictive drug in tobacco smoke
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What kind of drug is nicotine?
A stimulant- speeds up the heart rate and causes narrowing of the blood vessels
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What does carbon monoxide do?
Stops red blood cells carrying oxygen
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What is one unit of alcohol equal to?
10ml of pure alcohol
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What is alcohol?
A toxic substance broken down by the liver
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What does excessive alcohol intake lead to?
Brain damage, liver cirrhosis
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What kind of drug is alcohol?
A depressant- increases reaction times
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What is homeostasis?
Maintaining a constant internal environment
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What is the optimum temperature for enzymes?
37°C- this is normal body temperature
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What is the hypothalamus?
An area of the brain that controls body temperature
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What organ controls blood sugar levels?
The pancreas
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What is a hormone?
A chemical messenger which is transported in the blood
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What happens when blood sugar levels increase?
Insulin is secreted by the pancreas
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What is the role of insulin?
Causes glucose to be taken up by cells and turned into glycogen
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What is diabetes?
A disease where individuals are unable to control the amount of sugar in their blood
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Give two examples of plant hormones.
Gibberelin, auxins
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What can plant hormones control?
Growth of shoots, roots, flowers and ripening of fruits
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What is a tropism?
A directional growth response in plants
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What is a negative tropism?
A plant growth away from a stimulus
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Name two examples of tropism.
Phototropism (growth response to light) and geotropism (growth response to gravity)
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Where is the genetic information about a human found?
Cell nucleus
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Where is the genetic information contained?
Within 23 pairs of chromosomes
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How many chromosomes do humans have?
46
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What are chromosomes made of?
DNA- a chemical
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What is a gene?
A section of DNA which provides instructions for one chracteristic e.g. eye colour
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What are the sex chromosomes for males and females?
XY- male, XX- female
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What is a mutation?
A change in a gene or chromosome which creates new characteristics
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Name two diseases caused by genetic mutations.
Cystic fibrosis, sickle- cell anaemia
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What are alleles?
Different forms of a gene
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How many alleles are there for each gene?
Two, e.g. Aa
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What are the two types of allele?
Dominant and recessive
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What is being homozygous dominant?
Having two dominant alleles for a gene
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What is being homozygous recessive?
Having two recessive alleles for a gene
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What is being heterozygous?
Having one dominant and one recessive allele for a gene
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is meant by being healthy?

Back

Being free from disease

Card 3

Front

What causes blood pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where is the blood under the greatest pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is systolic pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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