Biology B1 Keywords

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Balanced diet
A diet which contains the right proportions of different types of food and the right amount of energy
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When the body becomes unhealthy due to not having enough of some types of foods (not a balanced diet)
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Deficiency disease
A condition caused by not consuming enough of a vitamin or mineral eg. Scurvy from lack of vitamin C
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Vigorous movement and use of muscles, which increases metabolic rate and respiration, using more energy, which can improve health and mass if done regularly
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Metabolic rate
The speed of which chemical reactions occur in the body eg. Respiration
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The ratio between muscle and fat cells. The more muscle cells the body has the higher the metabolic rate as the use mitochondria rather than having their own energy store
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Molecules found in a balanced diet, needed for growth and repair of cells. Made up of amino acids
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Metal ions which are needed for various purposes for general health such as iron for healthy blood cells
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Molecules which can be used as a temporary store of energy. Excess converted into glycogen and body fat. Includes glucose.
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A lipid which is produced in the liver from food which can block arteries but also can make important chemicals eg. Bile
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Saturated fat
A type of lipid found in food which increases levels of LDL's.
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Unsaturated fat
A type of lipid. Can be found as mono or polyunsaturated. Improves the balance of LDL:HDL
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Low density liboprotein which uses cholesterol in the bloodstream to block arteries
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High density liboprotein which transports cholesterol to the liver to be made into bile, vitamin d, sex hormones etc.
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A microorganism such as a fungi, bacteria or virus which causes an (infectious) disease
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Infectious disease
A condition caused by a pathogen reproducing, damaging cells and producing toxins inside your body.
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When someone is classed as this, a pathogen has entered the body.
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Defence mechanism
A method of protection against pathogens infecting the body. This includes the immune system and physical examples such as eyelashes, skin.
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A very small organism which can generally only be seen by a microscope. Eg. Virus, bacteria
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A substance produced by pathogens which is neutralised by antitoxins. Affect bodily processes.
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Immune System
The system in the body designed to attack and remove pathogens. Include white blood cells, lymph nodes.
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One function a white blood cell (as well as the mouth). The intake of substances (such as a pathogen) for digestion and absorbtion of nutrients.
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A protein made by a white blood cell which binds to antigens on pathogens to attack them.
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A protein on the surface of all cells including pathogens. They are unique and targetted by antibodies.
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A substance produced by white blood cells which can bind to and neutralise toxins produced by pathogens
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White blood cell
A cell transported in the bloodstream to the site of an infection. Works to make the body immune to pathogens. Have a multi-lobed nucleus.
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When a white blood cell recognises a pathogen's antigen on reinfection and produces it more rapidly before the body is affected by toxins produced.
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A drug that kills infectious bacteria. Can't target viruses as they are disguised and reproduce inside cells. Eg. Penicillin.
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A type of micro-organism which is very small and invades body cells and reproduces inside them so can't be removed without also damaging them.
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A micro-organism which can be targetted by antibiotics and can produce resistant strains by random mutations.
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A random incorrectly copied gene during asexual reproduction which results in an offspring with different genetic material.
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Small amounts of dead or innactive pathogen such as just the antigens which are injected into the body. They stimulate the white blood cells so you aee immune.
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Antibiotic resistant strain
A mutated resistive gene of a bacteria which allows some bacteria to survive during a course of antibiotics. This survives and reproduces.
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MMR vaccine
A vaccine given to young children to prevent against Measles, mumps and rubella which are deadly diseases.
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A growth of micro-organisms for the purpose of an investigation. Grows on a culture medium.
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Petri dish
A plastic dish which contains agar jelly as a culture medium. Sealed to prevent contamination for a fair investigation.
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The process of growing micro-organisms in specific conditions such as specific temperatures.
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Innoculating loop
The metal loop placed onto a sample being tested for microorganisms present then streaked on the culture medium.
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When the number of people infected within (part of) a country rises to well above expected.
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When the number of people infected (often by a new virus) within multiple country rises to well above expected at one time.
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A cell which detects stimuli within an organism and sends an impulse.
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A change in the environment which can be detected by an organism e.g. heat, light intensity, chemicals
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A specialised cell which carries an electrical impulse. Release neurotransmitters to transfer signals accross the synapse between neurones.
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Reflex action
An automatic and rapid response coordinated by the spinal cord as the signal does not reach the brain.
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Motor neuron
A neuron in the reflex arc which carries the impulse from the relay neuron in the spinal cord to the effector organ.
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Effector organ
The organ which carries out a response to a stimuli. Can be a muscle or a gland to either secrete a chemical or contract.
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The gap between two neurons which a neurotransmitter diffuses accross.
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Processes inside the body to maintain internal conditions. Often controlled by hormones.
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A type of cell/organ which secretes a chemical such as a hormone.
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Female sex hormone which stimulates the build up of the lining of the womb for pregnancy, inhibits production of FSH
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Pituitary gland
A gland at the base of the brain which secretes FSH and LH to stimulate oestrogen production.
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Female reproductive organs where eggs mature and see released from. Stimulated to secrete oestrogen.
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Follicle stimulating hormone. Secreted by the pituitary gland to cause eggs to mature. Stimulates oestrogen production. Used in IVF before eggs are collected.
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Luitenising hormone. Secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate the release of eggs from the ovaries.
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Female gamete, matured and released from the ovaries during menstration for fertilisation.
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Methods of controlling fertility. Hormones can be used as oral contraceptive which contains oestrogen and progesterone.
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The scientific method to create children for infertile women. Hormones FSH and LH mature eggs. Zygotes are formed after external fertilisation which are implanted into the womb for normal development.
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A plant hormone which controls tropisms during growth. Unequal distribution causes roots and stems to bend.
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A plants response to light. In the stem, most auxin is on the side with the least light so stimulates growth on this side.
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Response to water in roots of a plant. Auxin is found most kn the side with water and inhibits growth on that side.
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Gravitropism (Geotropism)
A plants response to gravity, auxin is found most concentrated on the lower side of the plant stem and roots.
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Clinical trials
A set of experiments which test for a drug's safety, effectiveness (efficacy) and appropriate doses on volunteers and patients.
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A method of cloning plants which uses plant hormones to encourage small sections of a plant to grow.
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The amount of a drug which is safe and effiant when taken by a patient with the relevant condition.
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A tablet similar in appearance to a drug (often sugar) that can have a psycological effect compared to a physiological effect of a drug being tested in a double blind trial.
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Double blind trial
Patients are given a placebo or a drug being tested in clinicl trials Neither patient or doctor knows who is given which.
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The smallest part of an organism. where respiration occurs. Can be specialised for a particular function.
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A group of similar cells with a specific function. Types include muscular or epithelial.
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Different tissues together with a specific function distinct from other organs. Examples include heart, skin.
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A drug used to reduce risk of heart disease by improving the balance of LDL's and HDL's and may reduce cholesterol production.
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A drug which caused a scandal as it caused limb abnormalities in foetuses when used as a treatment for morning sickness as it was not properly tested prior.
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Drug misuse
Using drugs in excessive quantities, or illegally, includes using medical drugs recreationally or becoming addicted.
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A substance that changes the chemical processes inside the body. Can contain addictive chemicals and cause withdrawal symptoms.
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When a drug changes your chemical processes so you become reliant on the drug.
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Withdrawal symptoms
Symptoms that occur after an addict stops taking a drug such as shaking or sweating.
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Performance enhancing drug
Drugs that help someone perform better in sport such as stimulants for muscle growth.
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Recreational drugs
Illegal or legal drugs used for their enjoyment, often with harmful effects such as addiction.
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Hard drugs
Drugs that will more likely cause an addiction with often more serious symptoms.
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An individual life form which is a member of a species which has adapted for survival in a specific environment and habitat.
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A feature of an organism that has developed over time that makes an organism more suited to survive in it's environment.
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The process where similar organisms or species challenge eachother for limited resources by use of adaptations. E.g. territory or food.
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Organisms continuing to live, in spite of competition or difficult environments due to adaptations, to reproduce to pass on genes.
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The conditions that face an organisms within it's habitat.
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The place where an organism lives within it's environment.
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All the members of a single species that live within a habitat.
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The different populations of all the different species within a habitat.
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A community, it's habitat containing the living and non-living components and how they interact within an environment.
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An organism targeted by a consumer for food. Often have adaptations such as camouflage for protection against predators.
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A secondary or higher consumer in a food chain which targets prey to hunt for food. Often have adaptations such as weapons and streamlined shape for speed.
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An organism adapted to survive in extreme environments such as saline or high temperatures.
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Waxy covering of a leaf on the upper epidermis. An adaptation to reduce water loss from the surface of a leaf.
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Root hair cell
A specialised cell which increases the surface area of roots so more water is absorbed through diffusion
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A living indicator which can be used to measure factors within an environment such as levels of pollution by counting the number of organisms
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Non-living indicator
A measurable change in the environment using equipment eg. temperature using a thermometer
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The mass of living material within an organism or number of organisms which stores chemical energy
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Trophic level
(Feeding level) Levels represented by a bar on a pyramid of biomass or numbers. A species within a food chain which relative sizes to other species can be compared
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Pyramid of biomass
A chart that shows how the biomass changes (to scale) between trophic levels as energy is lost within a foodchain
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Pyramid of numbers
A chart that shows how the number of individuals changes (to scale) between trophic levels as energy is lost and physical size of consumers changes within a foodchain
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Food chain
A series of organismas from producers to consumers which are dependant on the previous trophic level for consumption as food
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Light energy
Radiation from the sun which is coverted to chemical energy in producers i.e. via photosynthesis in plants
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Chemical energy
Energy stored in substances and organic compounds which is released by processes such as respiration
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Natural processes performed by microorganisms which break down waste materials and dead organisms into usable nutrients such as part of the cyclical nature of ecosystems
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Aerobic conditions
Conditions where oxygen is available in the environment for aeorbic respiration in organisms
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The carbon cycle
The cycle of carbon within the environment between the presences in the atmosphere, organisms and places where it is sequestered such as bodies of water and rocks
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The process which occurs in green plants where light energy is transferred into chemical energy in plants. CO2 + H2O -> O2 + C6H12O6
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Burning fuels such as wood and fossil fuels to release energy. This transfers carbon into the atmosphere in the form of CO or CO2
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The process where chemical energy is released by animal or plant cells (in mitochondria). Can be aerobic or anaerobic, aerobic is O2 + C6H12O6 -> CO2 + H2O
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Fossil fuels
Carbon which is sequestered in plant matters which is sedimented over time in hight temperatures and pressures. Can be in the form of coal, oil or natural gas which is used for fuel
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Detridous feeder
Organisms which break down waste materials into smaller pieces before decay using microorganisms
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A feature of an organismthat is determined by genes and the environment
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A short section of a DNA strand within a chromosome which carries information of a characteristic as it codes for the structure of a protein by the arrangement of amino acids
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Cells used within sexual reproduction. In humans these are sperm and egg which are fertilised so that offspring with variation develop
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An individual created as the result of reproduction between parent organisms
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The 'brain' of a cell which contains genetic information and contols the cells activities such as substances passing through the cell's membrance
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Long strands of tightly coiled DNA which contain genes. In humans there are 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes
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The process of forming offspring to continue a species which results in inheritance of genes
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Sexual reproduction
The fusion of female and male sex cells (gametes) by fertilisation which created variation within offspring
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Asexual reproduction
Where a single parent replicates and produces genetically identical clones as offspring. Often a more rapid process.
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Differences in genes and characteristics between offspring of a species or parents which can result in adaptations. Caused by sexual reproduction and random mutations
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Tissue culture
Taking small groups of cells (tissues) from part of a plant to form new clones of the parent
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Embryo transplant
Splitting cells from an embryo (taking stem cells) then transplanting them into host mothers to produce clones
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Specialised cell
A cell that is adapted to a specific function within the body
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Adult cell cloning
Where an egg is fused with the DNA of the parent from a body cell to forms embryos which are then transplanted into host mothers
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Genetic engineering
Modifying genetic material for new purposes such as cutting out genes using enzymes which are transplanted to produce chemicals to treat diseases
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GM crops
Genetically engineered crops to add additional genes so that they can have increased yields or resistance to insects or herbicides
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Methods or processes which produce genetically identical individuals. Modern techniques include tissue culture, embryo transplants and adult cell cloning
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Natural selection
Daarwin's theory of evolution that all species have evolved from simple life forms. Individuals with the characteristics most suitable for survival in their environment are able to survive, breed and pass on their genes.
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Theories which suggest how organisms developed by changing over time by developing adaptations caused by slow changes over
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A single organism which is a member of a species by may have variations of characteristics
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A random change during asexual reproduction which results in variation within clones
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Grouping of species based on observed similarities and differences such as within kingdoms
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A main group which organisms can be classified within. Include Plantae, Animalia, Protista, Fungi, Monera
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Evolutionary relationship
Relationships between extinct and currently alive species based on how they have developed by evolution
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Ecological relationship
Relationships between different species within an ecosystem such as dependance
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Evolutionary tree
A diagram which shows evolutionary relationships, common ancestors, how organisms have changed over time
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Common anscestor
A species which evolved with different adaptations in multiple different environments to result in new species with shared descent/genes and different appearances
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The theory of acquired characteristics
Larmark's theory of evolution which stated that characteristics developed due to environmental causes during an organism's lifespan could be passed to offspring
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Card 2


When the body becomes unhealthy due to not having enough of some types of foods (not a balanced diet)



Card 3


A condition caused by not consuming enough of a vitamin or mineral eg. Scurvy from lack of vitamin C


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Card 4


Vigorous movement and use of muscles, which increases metabolic rate and respiration, using more energy, which can improve health and mass if done regularly


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


The speed of which chemical reactions occur in the body eg. Respiration


Preview of the back of card 5
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