Biology B1, B2, B3

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What is blood pressure measured in?
Millimetres of mercury (mm Hg)
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Systolic blood pressure is...
The pressure in arteries when heart contracts
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Diastolic blood pressure is...
pressure in arteries when heart relaxes
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What can blood pressure be affected by?
Age and lifestyle
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How can you reduce high blood pressure?
Regular aerobic exercises
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Factors that lead to high blood pressure:
excess weight / excess alcohol / stress / smoking / diet
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Why is high blood pressure dangerous?
Blood vessels weaken and eventually burst. May lead to stroke or brain damage if in brain. In kidneys it may lead to kidney damage.
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What does low blood pressure mean?
blood does not circulate efficiently so some body parts deprived of oxygen and glucose
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Factors which increase risk of heart disease
high bp / smoking / too much salt / high fat diet
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When are heart attacks more likely?
Narrowed coronary arteries & thrombosis
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What does being healthy mean?
Free from infection
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What does being fit mean?
Relates to how much physical activity you can do and how fast you recover
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Cardiovascular efficiency
how well heart copes with exercise and how quickly it recovers after
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A balanced diet must contain...
carbs and fats for energy, and protein for growth and repair
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Where are these stored?
Carbs - in liver / fats - under skin / protein - not stored
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Protein molecules are...
Long chains of AMINO ACIDS
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What does a protein deficiency result in?
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First class proteins consist of what?
Meat and fish
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Second class proteins are what?
Plant proteins
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What can lead to a poor diet?
poor self-image / low self-esteem / desire for perfection
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What can a poor diet result in?
Anorexia / bulimia / obesity
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How can you reduce the likelihood of getting cancer?
Don't drink or smoke / eat healthily / avoid sunburn
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What's the difference between benign and malignant?
Benign = in one place // malignant = grows in other parts of body
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Defences against pathogens
skin = barrier / blood clots = stop microorganisms entering bloodstream / respiratory system = mucus membrane to trap / stomach = hydrochloric acid
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How do white blood cells deal with pathogens? (2 ways)
engulfing and digesting / or make antibodies to attack
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Immunisation on page 10 revision guide!!
Just do it...
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How can a drug be tested?
computer models - predict how it'll affect cells / animals - see how it affects living organisms (IT'S CRUEL!!) / human tissue - see how it affects human cells
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Blind trial
Volunteers don't know whether they've been given new drug or placebo
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Double blind trial
Neither the volunteer nor doctor knows whether been given new drug or placebo
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What's the purpose of your nervous system?
Allows you to react to surroundings & coordinate behaviour
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What do humans have to detect environmental changes?
Light receptors in eyes, sound/balance receptors in ears, small receptors in nose, taste receptors, touch/pressure/pain/temperature receptors in skin
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What are neurones?
Specially adapted cells that carry a nerve impulse.
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Name the 3 types of neurones
Sensory, Motor, Relay
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What do neurones have?
elongated shape, insulating sheath & dendrites
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Electrical impulse travels down neurone until reaches synapse / transmitter substance diffuses across synapse / transmitter binds with receptor molecules on next neurone causing electrical impulse on that neurone
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What happens with reflex actions?
They bypass your brain to give fast, automatic responses to a stimulus
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What harm do reflex actions protect you from?
knee jerk reaction, pupil reflex controls light entering eye, automatically withdrawing your hand from hot place
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When receiving light from near object:
ciliary muscles contract, suspensory ligaments relax, lens is short and fat to refract light a lot
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When receiving light from far object:
!! the opposite !! to !! a near !! object !!
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Name 3 common eye defects
long sight, short sight & red-green colour blindness
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Binocular vision
Eyes close together, eyes have limited field view, judge distance and speed accurately, found on HUMANS and PREDATORS
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Monocular vision
eyes on side of head, wide field view, little overlap in fields of view, found on PREY
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State the 5 drug categories
Stimulants (caffeine) / Depressants (alcohol) / Painkillers (paracetamol) / performance-enhancing (steroids) / hallucinagens (LSD)
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Stimulants and depressants act on what?
Synapses of nervous system. Stimulants cause more neuro-transmitters to cross synapse. Speeds up nervous impulse
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Depressants bind with..?
Receptor molecules in membrane of next neurone, blocking transmission of impulse
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What's an addiction?
A state of physical or psychological need for a drug
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Withdrawal symptoms?
psychological - cravings / physical - shaking
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What's rehabilitation?
process by which an addict learns to live without drug
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Short-term effects of alcohol:
lack of balance, slurred speech, poor judgement, vasodilation
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Long-term effects of drinking alcohol
liver damage as it works so hard, brain damage due to dehydration
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Which diseases can smoking lead to?
Cancers of the mouth, throat, oesophagus & lungs / Heart disease / bronchitis / emphysema
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What is homeostasis?
Maintenance of a constant internal environment
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At what temperature do enzymes work best at?
37 degrees celcius
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What is vasodilation/vasoconstriction
Widening and narrowing of blood vessels in order to increase or reduce heat loss by radiation
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What are hormones?
Chemical messages released by glands directly into bloodstream
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Released by PANCREAS, controls blood sugar levels.
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Type I diabetes
Caused by pancreas failing to produce insulin
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Type II diabetes
Cells do not respond to insulin
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What does insulin do?
Helps regulate one's blood sugar levels by converting excess glucose in blood by glycogen in liver.
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What are plant hormones?
CHEMICALS THAT CONTROL growth of shoots and roots / flowering and ripening of fruits
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Where is auxin made?
Shoot tip of plant
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What do plant hormones include?
rooting powder / fruit ripening hormone / selective weedkillers / control of dormancy
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What do dominant alleles do?
Control development of a characteristic, even if present only one 1 chromosome in a pair
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If both chromosomes in a pair contain the SAME allele of a gene, it's described as...
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If the chromosomes in a pair contain DIFFERENT alleles, the person is...
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Inherited diseases
Some diseases are caused by a faulty gene & so can be inherited e.g. red-green colour blindness
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What is natural classification?
Tries to use natural relationships between organisms. Considers more evidence,
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What is natural classification?
Tries to use natural relationships between organisms. Considers more evidence.
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What is artificial classification?
Based on observed characteristics & is designed for a practical purpose
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What are the 4 arthropods?
Insect / crustacean / arachnid / myriapod
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What are 'producers'?
They're in food chains - produce biomass during photosynthesis
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What is the trophic level?
Position or stage that an organism occupies in food chain
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What do pyramids of numbers show?
Number of organisms at each stage in food chain
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What do pyramids of biomass show?
Dry mass of living material at each stage in food chain
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look at page 28 revision guide for carbon cycle!
just do it.
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and page 29 for nitrogen cycle!!
i'm serious.
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what does interspecific mean?
individuals of DIFFERENT species compete for SAME resource
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What does intraspecific mean?
where organisms have exact same needs
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What's a mutualistic relationship?
2 organisms form a relationship from which both benefit e.g. buffalo + oxpecker
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What are adaptations?
Special features of behaviours which make an organism particularly well-suited to its environment
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Extremophiles are...
Biochemically adapted organisms to extreme conditions
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specialists & generalists
Specialists = suited to certain habitats // Generalists = in thermal vents. possess anti-freeze proteins
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Predator features
built for bursts of speed, camouflaged, hunting strategy, eyes at front
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Prey features
built for speed, use mimicry, eyes on side, live in groups
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Penguins have a...?
Heat exchange blood flow to colder regions.
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Adaptations to hot and dry environments
body fat stored in hump, able to tolerate changes in body temp, drinks litres of water in 1 go, hair lined nostrils trap moisture in breath
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How does cacti cope?
long roots to reach water, waxy cuticle to reduce water loss, having spines to reduces water loss and protect water stored
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Lamarck's theory of evolution
1) organisms change during lifetime as struggle to live 2) changes passed onto offspring
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page 35 revision guide for natural selection evolution
dooooo ittttt now!!
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What's ozone?
Natural gas high up in earth's atmosphere. Prevents too many UV rays getting to Earth.
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What is a carbon footprint?
amount of greenhouse gases one is responsible for emitting
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how is acid rain caused?
burning fossil fuels which release acid gases like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
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Greenhouse effect
1) heat energy from sun reflected from earth's surface back out to space 2) when reaches atmosphere, some rays pass but others trapped by co2 layer. Trapped rays keep Earth warmer than it would be so allow life to exist.
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What's a sustainable resource?
One that can be used up and replaced so isn't exhausted
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Endangered species
...are endangered of becoming extinct unless something is done to stop it
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How can survival of plant or animal species be threatened?
climate change / hunting / habitat destruction / pollutants
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How can endangered species be protected?
Educating people / protecting natural habitats / making seedbanks / banning hunting / artificial ecosystems
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Conservation programmes
protect human food supply, stabilise ecosystems, protect indigenous people, studying/identifying plants
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Main causes of whale deaths
entangled in fishing nets / pollutants / hunting / colliding with ships
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How can money be made from whales?
Cosmetics, food, oil, tourist attractions
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Captivity for whales
+ can be conserved / - loss of freedom
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Cells have what 4 things?
Cytoplasm (where ribosomes are), nucleus, cell membrane, mitochondria - respiration take place here.
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Functions of proteins include...
Structural, enzymes, carrier molecules, hormones
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What are enzymes?
Proteins which act as biological catalysts. They speed up chemical reactions, and are highly specific. Each one will only speed up a particular reaction.
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What stops the lock and key mechanism from working?
Extremes of pH and high temperatures
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What are mutations?
Changes to genes - can be spontaneous but rate can be increased by environmental factors like radiation or chemicals
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What do mutations do?
Change base sequence of DNA. This alters shape + function of protein.
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Aerobic respiration is...
Release of energy from glucose in PRESENCE of oxygen. Takes place in ALL CELLS.
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What is anaerobic respiration?
ABSENCE of oxygen. Happens when muscles are working so hard that lungs & circulatory system can't deliver enough oxygen to break down all glucose through aerobic. LACTIC ACID IS PRODUCED.
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Advantages of being multicellular
larger, cell differentiation, complex
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Occurs during sexual reproduction. 2 gametes fuse together.
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What does becoming multicellular require?
cell communication, supplying cells with nutrients, controlling exchanges with environment
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Diploid and haploid
Diploid = 2 sets of matching chromosomes // Haploid = 1 set of chromosomes
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What is mitosis needed for?
the replacement of worn-out cells / repair damaged tissue / asexual reproduction
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What is meiosis?
Cell division which occurs in testes & ovaries
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4 components of blood
platelets (clump together), plasma (transports substances), WBC (protect against disease), RBC (carry oxygen)
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Oxyhaemoglobin equation
haemoglobin + oxygen --> oxyhaemoglobin
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page 50 revision guide for the heart
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artery adaptations
thick wall made of elastic muscle fibres
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vein adaptation
have lumen and valves to stop backflow of blood
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capillary adaptation
thin permeable walls to allow substance exchange
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page 51 of revision guide for method of seeing plant cell parts
Just do it!!!!!!!!
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What are stem cells?
Undifferentiated animal cells which specialise & develop into different types of cells, tissue and organs
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Embryonic stem cells...
...can become any type of body cell
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What is selective breeding?
animals/plants with favourable characteristics are selected and crossbred to make offspring with desired characteristics
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Examples of selective breeding
Quantity of milk, quality of milk, beef production
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Advantage of genetic engineering
Allows organisms with new features to be made rapidly
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Disadvantages of genetic engineering
Inserted genes may have unexpected harmful effects
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page 54 revision guide for more on genetic engineering
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Advantages of commercial cloning of plants
genetically identical to parents so all characteristics known / possible to mass-produce
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Disadvantages of commercial cloning of plants
disease would affect all plants / reduction in genetic variation reduces potential for further selective breeding
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Uses of cloning
provide stem cells for medical purposes / mass production of animals w desirable characteristics / making animals genetically engineered to provide human products
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Ethical dilemmas about cloning humans
very unreliable / limited life span / it's wrong in religious views
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Benefits of cloning
all same characteristics / sex and timing can be controlled / top quality!
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Risks of cloning:
reduces genetic variation / potential for disease wiping all out / welfare concerns
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Animal organ donors
infection concerns / ethical issues concerning welfare and rights
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Systolic blood pressure is...


The pressure in arteries when heart contracts

Card 3


Diastolic blood pressure is...


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What can blood pressure be affected by?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How can you reduce high blood pressure?


Preview of the front of card 5
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