Biology - B1

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  • Created by: L_Georgie
  • Created on: 29-01-16 17:54
Where is your genetic material (DNA) found?
The nucleus (In most body cells)
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What is DNA arranged into?
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What is a chromosome and how many pairs does one cell contain?
A chromosome is on long strand of DNA that is coiled up. One human cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.
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What is a gene?
A gene is a short length of chromosome that controls the development of different characteristics.
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What instructions do genes give?
Each gene is a code for making a certain protein in the body.
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Give an example of a structural protein and a functional protein.
Structural - collagen Functional - amylase
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What is an organisms genotype?
An organisms genotype is all the genes it has.
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What is an organisms phenotype?
An organisms phenotype is the characteristics that an organism displays.
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How many chromosomes do sex cells have?
23 single chromosomes
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Why aren't children identical to their parents?
Children get some of their alleles from each of their parents meaning they can't look identical to either parent because they have different combinations of alleles.
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What are alleles?
Alleles are different versions of the same gene.
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What does homozygous mean?
It means you have two alleles the same for that particular gene.
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What does heterozygous mean?
It means you have two different alleles for that particular gene.
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How many dominant alleles do you need for that characteristic to show?
You only need one dominant allele for that characteristic to show because it cancels out the recessive allele.
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How many recessive alleles do you need for that characteristic to show?
You need both alleles to be recessive for that characteristic to show.
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What sex chromosomes do males have?
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What sex chromosomes do females have?
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What causes the male reproductive system to develop?
The Y chromosome causes a specific protein to be made, when the reproductive system begin to develop the protein causes the development of testes, the testes produce male sex hormones which makes the rest of the male reproductive system.
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What are genetic disorders caused by?
Faulty alleles that are passed on by parents to there children.
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What causes cystic fibrosis?
Cystic fibrosis is caused by faulty recessive alleles.
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What are the symptoms of cystic fibrosis?
Thick sticky mucus in the air passages, gut and pancreas, Difficulty breathing. Chest infections. Difficulty digesting food.
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What is a carrier of cystic fibrosis and how can we have carriers?
A carrier of cystic fibrosis is someone who has the faulty recessive allele but has a normal dominant one. We can have them because it is caused by two recessive alleles rather than a dominant allele.
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What causes Huntington's?
Huntingtons is caused by a faulty dominant allele.
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What does huntingtons cause?
Tremors (shaking), clumsiness, memory loss, mood changes and poor concentration.
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How can doctors test embryos for genetic disorders?
They can use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis where embryos are produced using IVF and then tested to see if they have a faulty gene. Only healthy ones are chosen to be implanted into the mothers womb.
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What are they issues surrounding genetic testing?
the results may not be 100% accurate, they are not 100% safe, issues surrounding aborting a baby (right to live), life insurance harder to get and discrimination (jobs)
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What are clones?
Clones are genetically identical organisms they have the same genes and the same alleles for those genes.
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What is asexual reproduction?
Asexual reproduction is reproduction without the sex and with one parent.
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What organisms produce clones and how?
Most bacteria produce clones by just dividing into two. Plants can produce clones by using runners or bulbs and greenfly can just lay eggs that develop into clones.
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How are twins made?
The egg is fertilised normally by the sperm and begins to develop but then the embryo splits into two and two separate embryos develop.
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How can scientists make clones?
They remove the nucleus of an egg leaving the egg without any genetic information. They insert a nucleus from a donor cell in the egg. It is then stimulated to start dividing. The embryo produced is genetically identical to the donor cell.
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What are the two types of stem cell?
Embryonic stem cells and Adult stem cells.
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What are embryonic stem cells?
They are unspecialised cells found in early embryos that can develop into any type of cell at all.
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What are adult stem cells and what do they do?
They are unspecialised cells that can be found in adult animals. They are involved in maintaining and repairing old and damaged tissues and can only specialise into certain cells.
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How can adult stem cells be used to treat illnesses?
They can carry out bone marrow transfusions for people with things like blood diseases as the adult stem cells can turn into new blood cells to replace the faulty ones.
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Can embryonic stem cells be used to treat illnesses?
Yes they can be used to replace faulty cells in sick people. Although the treatments are still being researched now.
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Card 2


What is DNA arranged into?



Card 3


What is a chromosome and how many pairs does one cell contain?


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Card 4


What is a gene?


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Card 5


What instructions do genes give?


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