Biology B1

What is found in an animal cell?
Nucleus, Cell membrane, cytoplasm, Ribosomes, Mitochondria. Animal cells are between 0.01 mm – 0.05 mm
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What is found in a Plant (palisade) cell?
Nucleus, Cell membrane, cytoplasm, Ribosomes, Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Vacuole, Cell wall. Plant cells are between 0.01 mm – 0.10 mm
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What is found in a bacteria cell?
Genetic material, Flagella, Cytoplasm, Plasmid DNA molecule, Cell membrane, cell wall
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What is eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic is animal and plant cells. Prokaryotic is bacteria cells
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What is the equation for magnification?
Magnification= image size%actual size
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How many mm in a millimetre?
1 × 10-3 m
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what measurement is this? 1 × 10-9 m
A Nanometer
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how many mm in a micrometer?
1 × 10-6 m
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how has light microscopes advanced?
Throughout their development, the magnification of light microscopes has increased, but very high magnifications are not possible. The maximum magnification with a light microscope is around ×1500.
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how has electron microscopes advanced?
Electron microscopes use a beam of electrons instead of light rays.The limit of resolution of the transmission electron microscope is now less than 1 nm.
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How is the nerve cell specialised?
Long to transmit messages. Dendrites to connect to other nerve cells.fatty sheath, which insulates the nerve cell and speeds up the nerve impulse.
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How is the sperm cell specialised?
The head of the sperm contains the genetic material for fertilisation. Tail for swimming. Lots of mitochondria to give them energy to swim to egg
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how is the muscle cell specialised?
Muscle cells contain filaments of protein that slide over each other to cause muscle contraction. Store glucose. contain mitochondria
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how is the root hair specialised?
The root hair cell has a large surface area to provide contact with soil water. It has thin walls so as not to restrict the movement of water.
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How is the xylem and phloem specialised?
Xylem carries water. Phloem carries nutrients. No organelles cos they get in the way. no end walls so a continues tube is formed. walls are thickened and woody to support plant.
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what does cell differentiation mean?
The process by which a cell becomes specialized in order to perform a specific function, changes in gene expression.
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how does bacteria grow on agar plates?
Agar plates are created by pouring hot molten agar into sterile petri dishes, which is then allowed to set. Bacteria can be spread onto the plates, and allowed to form individual colonies of the specific bacterium.
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What is cell division?
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells
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How many chromosomes in the human body?
Each human body cell contains 46 chromosomes. These can be arranged into 23 pairs.
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when do cells divide in mitosis?
an organism grows an organism becomes damaged and needs to produce new cells
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what is an undifferiented cell?
Stem cells are cells that have not undergone differentiation. A cell which has not yet become specialised is called undifferentiated.
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what do stem cells do?
An embryo develops from a fertilised egg. Cells at the early stages in the development of the embryo are stem cells. If cells are removed from the embryo – called embryonic stem cells - they will differentiate into any cell type.
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how are stem cells useful?
they have potential to regenerate and repair damaged tissue. They can be used in treatments such as Parkinsons.
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Social issues with stem cells
Much of the research is being carried out by commercial clinics, so reported successes are not subject to peer review. Patients could be exploited by paying for expensive treatments and being given false hope of a cure as stem cell therapies are only
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Ethical issues with stem cells
A source of embryonic stem cells is unused embryos produced by in vitro fertilisation (IVF) For therapeutic cloning is it right to create embryos for therapy, and destroy them in the process? Embryos could come to be viewed as a commodity, and not as
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Clinical issues with stem cells?
Some mutations observed in stem cells act like cancer cells.Cultured stem cells could be contaminated with viruses which would be transferred to a patient. Not guaranteed success. Difficult to find stem cell donors.The difficulty in obtaining and sto
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What is DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many virus
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What is a gene?
A section of DNA that codes for one particular protein is called a gene. Each chromosome contains thousands of different genes. The genetic code of the DNA always remains safe inside the nucleus. But the proteins are made outside the nucleus in the c
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What is a chromosome?
The chromosomes of a cell are in the cell nucleus. They carry the genetic information. Chromosomes are made up of DNA and protein combined as chromatin. Each chromosome contains many genes. ... When they duplicate, chromosomes look like the letter "X
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What is diffusion?
The movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
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what is the concentration gradient?
the difference in concentration between two areas
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what effects the rate of diffusion?
Surface area, thickness of membrane, temperature, concentration gradient
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Suggest why puppies are more at risk of losing body heat than adult dogs.
Dogs lose heat over their body surface. Puppies have a larger surface area to volume ratio than adult dogs, so will lose heat more readily.
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what is osmosis?
the diffusion of water molecules from a dilute to a more concentrated solution across a partially permeable membrane.
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Card 2


What is found in a Plant (palisade) cell?


Nucleus, Cell membrane, cytoplasm, Ribosomes, Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Vacuole, Cell wall. Plant cells are between 0.01 mm – 0.10 mm

Card 3


What is found in a bacteria cell?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the equation for magnification?


Preview of the front of card 5
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