Biology b1

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  • Created by: Ronel.p
  • Created on: 03-05-18 22:15
what is a cell
are the building blocks of life
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are organisms made of eukaryotic cells, which are complex cells, and all plants and animals are made up of such cells. They are usually multi-cellular organisms.
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are smaller and simpler prokaryotic cells and single celled organisms (unicellular) eg bacteria.
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size of a animal cell
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size of a plant cell
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size of a bacteria cell
0.5um to 5um
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The function of a sperm cell (reproduction)
The function of a sperm is basically to get male dna to the female dna
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The function of a nerve cell (Rapid signalling)
The function of a nerve cell is to carry electrical signals from one part of the body to another
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The function of a muscle cell(Contraction)
The function of a muscle cell is to contract quickly
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The function of a phloem cell(transporting subtances)
transport the products of photosynthesis from the leaves to the rest of the plant
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The function of a xylem cell(transporting substances)
transport water and minerals ions from roots to the leaves
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function of a root hair cell ( Absorbing water and minerals)
Absorbs water and mineral ions from the soil
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how are sperm cell specialised(3)
It has long tail and a streamlined head to help is swim to the egg(1)/ A lot of mitochondria to transfer energy to the tail(1)/Arosome contains enzyme to break through the egg cell membrane(1)
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how are muscle cell specialised(2)
cells are long (so that they have space to contract)(1)/Contains lots of mitochondria to generate the energy needed for contraction(1)contain filaments of protein that slide over each other to cause muscle contraction.
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how are root hair cells specialised
large surface area to provide contact with soil water.(1)/ It has thin walls so as not to restrict the movement of water(1)
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how are nerves cell specialised
cells are long (to cover more distance)(1) have branched connections at their ends to connect to other nerve cells and form a network throughout the body.(1)/The nerve cell is covered with a fatty sheath, which insulates the nerve cell and speeds up
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how are xylem cell specialised
There are no top and bottom walls between xylem vessels, so there is a continuous column of water running through them. (1)/thewalls become thickened by lignin and woody. They therefore support the plant.9!)
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how are phloem cell specialised
Dissolved sugars and amino acids can be transported both up and down the stem due to the wall broken down(1). Companion cells, adjacent to the sieve tubes provide energy(mitochondria) required to transport substances in the phloem.A few subcelluar s
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are groups of cell with similar function
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are combination of tissues performing similar function
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organ system
are collection of organs working together to form an organism
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The steps taken for microscope practical
Rotate the objective lenses /Turn the coarse focus so that the stage is as close to the objective lens /Place the slide//Record an image
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risk of light microscope practical
Care must be taken when looking down the microscope if the illumination is too bright(1)/. Care when using microscope stains(!)/. Care when handling coverslips, microscope slides and mounted needles.
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A low power diagram is used:
to show the outline of individual cells that make up the tissue, if the tissue is uniform
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A high power diagram is then produced
a detailed image of a part of the slide.
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what measurement can light microscope see
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what measurement can electron microscope see
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What does nucleus contain
genetic material in the form of chromsomes in a molecule called DNA.
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what is a chromosome
long ***** of Dna
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what does each section of chromosome contain
carries a large number of genes
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how many chromosomes does a body contain
23 pair
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what does gene control
development of different characteristic
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what is the cell cycle
process of growth and division
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why is mitosis important for a organism
an organism grows (1)/organism becomes damaged and needs to produce new cells(1)/
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why does the cell cycle make new cells
for growth, development and repair
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what is the name of the stage of the cell cycle when the cell divides
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what does multicelluar organism use mitosis
To grow/ replace cells that have been damaged/repair tissues
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what does the end of the cell cycle result in
two new cells identical(called daughter cells) to the orginal cell with the same number of chromosomes
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1st stage of the cell cycle(3)
DNA replicates to form x shaped chromosomes, subcelluar structures divide, thje cell grows bigger
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2nd stage of mitosis
The nucleus disappears. The chromosomes line up at the centre of the cell and cell fibres pull the 2 identical arms of each chromosome apart towards the opposite poles of the cell
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3rd stage of mitosis
A nucleus forms around each set of chromosome
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4th stage of mitosis
the cytoplasm divides forming two identical daughter cells
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Length of time in phase equation
observed number of cells at that stage} / {total number of cells observed} * {total length of time of cell cycle)
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why might the length of a cell cycle vary in different tissue
different replacement rates
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Stem cell
a stem cell is an undifferentiated cell cell that is capable of becoming other cell types
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what happens when a cell differantiate
it produces certain subcelluar structures to become a specialised cell that is adpated for its fuction
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where are stem cells found
human embryos, or certain parts of the body
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where does embryos develop
An embryo develops from a fertilised egg.
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what can adult stem cell differentiate from
Adult stem cells can differentiate into related cell types only,
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example of adult stem cell differentiation
, bone marrow cells can differentiate into blood cells and cells of the immune system but not other cell types.
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where are stem cells found in plants
in the meristems(part of the plant where growth occur)
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what can plant stem cell do that human stem cell cant
throughout the plant entire life, cells in the meristem tissues can differentiate into any type of plant
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when dio plant cell tend to differntiate
s the cells become older, further away from the tip, they become differentiated
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why do farmers like plant stem cells(3)
can be used to produce clones of whole plants quickly and cheaply/ grow rare species(prevent being wipe out/ and to have desired features such as disease resistance
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what is the Circulatory system specialised in
Transport substances, defend the body, regulate temperature
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what is the Excretory system specialised in
Remove waste products and unwanted substances, regulate the water content of the body
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what is the Muscular system specialised in
Bring about movement
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what is the Nervous system specialised in
Respond to internal and external stimuli and conditions, carry messages for the body work as a coordinated whole
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what is the Respiratory system specialised in
Deliver oxygen for respiration and remove waste
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what is the Reproductive system specialised in
Bring about fertilisation to produce new offspring
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what is the Skeletal system specialised in
To bring about movement, support and protect internal structures, produce blood cells, store and release calcium
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what are human stem cells usually used for
treat medical conditions and disease. They could be used to replace cells that have been damaged or destroyed, eg:
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when would doctors use bone marrow
in cases of blood cell cancer such as leukaemia and lymphoma
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why would doctors make nerve cells
to treat paralysis
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why would doctors make insulin
to treat diabiteis
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why would doctors make dopamine
to treat parkinston disease
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Therapeutic cloning
n cases of blood cell cancer such as leukaemia and lymphoma
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what does Therapeutic cloning involve
The technique involves the transfer of the nucleus from a cell of the patient, to an egg cell whose nucleus has been removed.
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clinical issue of stem cell
tem cells could be contaminated with viruses which would be transferred to a patient.
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ethical issues of stem cells
For therapeutic cloning is it right to create embryos for therapy, and destroy them in the process?
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social issue of stem cells
atients could be exploited by paying for expensive treatments and being given false hope of a cure as stem cell therapies are only in their developmental stages.
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is the net movement of particles in a solution or a gas from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
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where does diffusion happen
in both solution and gass
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what increases the rate of diffsion
concentration gradient (difference in concentration)/ A higher temperature(particles have more energy to move)/ The surface ares to volume rattio
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what can dissolve in cells
dissolved substances but only very small molecules can diffuse through cell membrane such as carbon dioxide and oxygen
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Some examples of diffusion in biological systems
In a leaf/ In the lungs/Liver cells
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what is the job of the lungs
transfer oxgen to the bood and to remove carbon dioxide from it
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what do lungs contain for gas exchange to take place
milions of alveoil
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where does the air go in and out of the lungs
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what is the alveoil speciliased in
to maximise the diffusion of O2 and Co2
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what does aveoli have that maximise diffusion(4)
an enouromous surface are/ thin walls and a good blood suply
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where in the lungs are there a high concentration
high Co2 concentration as blood returns to the body
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where in the lungs are there a low concentration
low oxygen as blood returns to the body and low co2 in the alveolus
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when we breath in what happens and how
oxygen is breathed in the lungs and diffused into the red blood cells where their a low oxygen concentration
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what happens to carbon dioxide in the lungs as you breath out
carbon dioxide diffuse out the lungs from high to low.
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How do we maintain the steep concentration gradient in the lungs
ventilation( continuously breathing in or exhaling breathing out)and circulation(constant baeting of the heart and the constant flow of blood around the heart
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distance of diffsusion in lungs
2 cell thick
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what an advantage of a large animal to have a smaller surface area to volume ratio
able to keep in their own body heat so can live in cold environment
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what a advantage of a small animal to have a large surface area to volume ratio
can lose a lot of excess body heat fast
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is having a large surface area to small volume ratio speed or slow down diffusion
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why does multicelluar organism cause problem with diffsuion
they have a small surface area to volume ratio so need exchange system
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what organism have large surface area to v small volume ratio
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what has larger surface area large organism or small organism
Larger organisms have a smaller surface area to volume ratio
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single cell organsim gas transport
A simple, unicellular organism (consisting of one cell) can rely on diffusion to move substances into and out of the cell due to surface area is large compared to its volume
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what does exchange system allow
This is to allow sufficient molecules to be transported into and out of cells for the organism’s needs.
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what makes fish breath
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where do fish get their oxygen
oxygen dissolved in water
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how do fish get oxygen
Fish open their mouth do draw water in one of the gil flap that close then they will close thier mouth forcing water out through the gills which will then open. As this happens o2 diffuse from the water into the blood in the gills and co2 diffus to w
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what does gills contain
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what does both filaments and lamellae increase
surface area
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on each filmanet what does it contain
Lamellae- increase surface area
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whats threaded inside lamellae
lots of blood caplaries to speed up diffusion
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how do fish maintain steep concentration gradiet
they have a counter cureent flow
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whats the difference between unicelluar organism and multicelluar organism in surface area
the surface area of a multicellular organism, such as a plant or animal, is small compared to its volume. As a result, multicellular organisms need specialised exchange surfaces (such as lungs or gills) and transport systems.
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Common features of exchange surfaces:
thin, large suface area and moist
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What does plants need for gas exchange
Co2 and water for photosynthesis
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where does carbon dioxide enter from the leaf
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where does water enter from the leaf
water will go through the root by root hell cell
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what does root hair cells have that increae surface area for asorbtion
extended cell membrane and cell wall
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what happens as the carbon dixide gasses go throught the stomata
The Co2 will fill up air spaces created by
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what hapens as water enter the leaf
go into xylem and up to the veins of the leaf that contain the xylem vessels and hen will move out by osmosis into these air spaces alongside with carbon dioxide
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how do plants maintain a constant concentration graient
by using up the reactants when the sun shinning
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what a partially permeable membrane
is a membrane with very small holes in it
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why is use of isotonic drinks and high energy drinks important in sports
contain sugar which keeps glucose levels high aswell as the diffusion of water, sugar and ions passing into the bloodstream then the cell by diffsuion
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osmosis required practical independent variable
concentration of soloution
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osmosis required practical dependent variable
% change in mass of potato chips
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osmosis required practical control variable
surface area of the chip, time left in solution, variety of potato
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example of active transpart
root hair cells, small intestine
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how do roothair cell take in mineralas
using active transport
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what is the small intestine
where your food is absorbed and is part of the digestive system
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where does food travel in mammel
a lumen
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how does the food enter the blood stream
it gets broken up
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what is the small intestie covered in
millions of villi
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what do villi do
icrease the surface area in a big way so that digested food is absorbed much more quickly in the bllod.
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what else does vvilli have that maximise diffsuion
short diffusion distance- 1 cell thick and a very good blood supply to assist quick asorbtion
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how do small intestine maintain a steep concentration gradient
continuous blood flow
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osmosis practical
Cut up a potato into identical cyclinders an get a some beakers with different sugar soloution in them. One should be pure water and the other should be very concentratd sugar soloution
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what do you measure in the osmosis practical
the mass of the cyclinders by leaving one cylinder in each beaker for 24 hours or so and then dry and measure their mass qgain
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what are some errors that could occur in osmosis practical
some potato cylinders were not fully dried so the excess eater would give a higher mass
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how can you reduce the effect of a error in a practical
repeating the experiment and calculating a mean percentage change
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what is the isotonic point
point where the potato will neither gain or lose mass
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risk of osmosis practical(2)
Care must be taken when using the scalpel. (1)/Wear eye protection when using chemical solutions.
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plant cells placed in pure water
n pure water, the cell contents (the cytoplasm and vacuole) push against the cell wall and the cell becomes turgid. Fully turgid cells support the stems of non-woody plants.
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plant cells are placed in Concentrated solution
In a more concentrated solution, the cell contents lose water by osmosis. They shrink and pull away from the cell wall. The cell becomes flaccid. It is becoming plasmolysed.
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how do cell wall support the cell during osmosis
stops it bursting when it gains water by osmosis.
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what disadvantage does animal cell have in osmosis
They do not have a cell wall, so will change size and shape when put into solutions that are at a different concentration to the cell contents.
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red blood cells could when put in a solution(2)
lose water and shrink(1)/ gain water, swell and burst in a more dilute solution
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are organisms made of eukaryotic cells, which are complex cells, and all plants and animals are made up of such cells. They are usually multi-cellular organisms.

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size of a animal cell


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size of a plant cell


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