Biology B1

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What is a healthy diet?
Contains the right balance of the different foods your body needs and provides the right amount of energy.
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What 3 things are used by the body to release energy and build cells?
Carbohydrates, fats and proteins
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What are mineral ions and vitamins needed for?
For the body to function properly
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What can a poor diet lead to?
-A person being overweight or obese, -a person being underweight, -deficiency diseases or conditions such as type 2 diabetes
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When will a person lose weight/body mass?
When the amount of energy in the food they eat is the amount of energy being used by the body
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What does exercise do?
Increase the amount of energy being used by the body
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What other 2 factors affect a persons health?
Metabolic rate and cholesterol level
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What is the metabolic rate?
The rate at which chemical reactions occur in the body
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What affects the metabolic rate?
The amount of activity and exercise you do, the proportion of fat to muscle in your body and inherited factors
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What is cholesterol?
It is made in your liver and is found in your blood.
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The amount of cholesterol in your blood depends on...
Your diet and inherited factors
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What can too much cholesterol lead to?
Heart disease
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What are pathogens?
Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases
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What are the two main types of pathogen?
Bacteria and virus
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How do white blood cells help defend the body?
engulfing pathogens, producing antibodies to neutralise toxins released from the pathogen, produce antibodies to destroy specific pathogens
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What are bacteria?
They are very small, they reproduce quickly, may produce toxins that make you ill, cause illness like Tuberculosis
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What are viruses?
They are smaller than bacteria, they reproduce quick once inside living cells, may produce toxins that make you ill, cause illnesses like colds, flus, measles and polio
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What happens when white blood cells produce antibodies?
After they kill the pathogen, it leads to immunity. They remember it so when it comes back it can make antibodies quicker
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What are the steps of a vaccination?
1. small amounts of a dead pathogen are injected into the body 2. white blood cells produce antibodies to destroy a pathogen 3. immunity has been acquired so white blood cells can remember
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What did Semmelweiss do?
Recognised how important hygiene was in order to prevent disease. Insisted that doctors wash their hands before examining patients.
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What do painkillers do?
Relieve the symptoms of infectious diseases. They don't kill pathogens
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What do antibiotics do?
Kill infective bacteria pathogens inside the body. They don't kill viral pathogens
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Steps of antibiotic resistant mutation...
1. a pathogen mutates, producing a new strain 2. the new strain may become resistant to antibiotics 3.the new resistant strain spreads rapidly
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What factors contribute to an increase in antibiotic resistant strains?
Overuse of antibiotics and prescribing inappropriate antibiotics
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How do you investigate the effect of disinfectants
Using uncontaminated culture of microorganisms
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What is agar?
Soft substance that melts easy
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Why are nutrients added to the agar?
To provide ideal growing conditions for the microorganisms
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What are the steps of preparing uncontaminated culture?
1. sterilise petri dish (autoclave temp kill bacteria) 2. sterilise inoculating loop (bunsen burner) 3. transfer the microorganisms (by inoculating loop) 4. seal the petri dish (use tape and label it)
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What does your nervous system allow you to do?
React to your surroundings and coordinate your behaviour
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What does the nervous system consist of?
Brain, spinal cord, nerves (neurones), receptors
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What is the nervous system?
Receptor, sensory neurone, (CNS&SYNAPSE) relay neurone, (SYNAPSE), motor neurone, effector
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What are effectors?
Either muscles or glands. Muscles respond by contracting, glands respond by secreting hormones
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What do receptors detect?
Stimuli e.g. eyes - light, nose - smell, ears - sound
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What are neurones?
Specially adapted cells that carry electric signals
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What happens across a synapse?
1. an electrical impulse reaches the synapse 2. it is converted into neurotransmitters which diffuse across the gap 3. receptors on the other neurone detect them 4. an electrical impulse is generated in the other neurone
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What is a reflex action?
They prevent your body from being harmed
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Why must the body control temperature?
To maintain the temperature enzymes work best at
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Why does the body control water content?
70% of body mass is water which is vital for chemical reactions to take place
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Why must the body control ion content?
Otherwise our cells will become shrivelled, swollen or even burst
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Why must the body control blood sugar?
To provide cells with a constant supply of energy
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How does the body control temperature?
Shivering to increase temperature and swearing to lower temperature
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How does water leave the body?
From the lungs when you breathe out, from the skin through sweat, via the kidneys in urinw
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How are ions lost from the body?
From the skin through sweat, via the kidneys in urine
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How is glucose used up?
When it is converted into energy e.g. movement
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What are hormones?
Chemicals produced by glands
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What do hormones do?
Coordinate many processes within the body and regulate the functions of many organs and travel to their target organs in the bloodstream
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What do the hormones in the menstrual cycle cause?
An egg to be released every month from the ovaries and changes in the thickness of the womb
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What is FSH?
From the pituitary gland, causes an egg to mature and the ovaries to produces oestrogen
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What is oestrogen?
From the ovaries, inhibits the production of FSH and causes the production of LH
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What is LH?
It is released from the pituitary gland and it stimulates the release of an egg in the middle of the menstrual cycle
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Why are hormones given to women?
Increase fertility - given FSH and LH to stimulate eggs, reduce fertility - oestrogen to prevent FSH production
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What does using fertility treatments do?
Increase the chance of pregnancy, meaning an increased risk of complications during pregnancy
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What is IVF used for?
Given to women who have difficulty becoming pregnant?
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What are the main stages of IVF?
1. Mother is given FSH and LH 2. Eggs collected from mother 3. Eggs fertilised in a lab using fathers sperm 4. Eggs develop into embryos 5. One of two embryos are inserted into the mothers uterus
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What are plants sensitive to?
Light - shoots grow toward it, moisture - roots grow toward it, gravity - roots grow in the same way that gravity is, shoots grow against gravity
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What do plant hormones control?
The growth of shoots and roots, the flowering of plants, the ripening of fruit
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What do plants respond to different stimuli?
Because of an unequal distribution of hormones
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What is a plants response to a stimulus called?
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What hormone controls the way plants respond to light and gravity?
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Explain phototropism.
The way in which a plant grows in response to light. When light hits one side of the plant, more auxin builds up on the darker side of the plant. Excess auxin triggers more growth in the cells, which causes the shoot to bend towards the light
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What is gravitropism/geotropism?
The way in which a plant grows in response to gravity.
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What are plant hormones used for in agriculture?
Weedkillers - to selectively kill weeds by affecting the way they grow and rooting powders - to stimulate roots to grow more quickly on plant cuttings
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What are drugs?
Substances that alter the body chemistry
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What are statins?
Drugs used to lower the amount of cholesterol found in the blood. This reduces the risk of heart disease
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What has to be done when a new medical drug is made?
Has to be tested and trialled
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Why are drugs tested?
To see if they are toxic, efficient and what dosage is needed
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What are the stages of developing a new drug?
1. new drug is made in the lab 2. drugs are tested in the lab 3. clinical trials involving healthy volunteers and patients to check for side effects
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What happens in double blind trials?
Some patients are given a placebo, which does not contain the drug. Neither the doctor, nor the patient knows who has the placebo and who has received the drug until the trial is over. This helps reduce bias results.
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What is thalidomide?
It was originally developed, tested and approved as a sleeping pill.
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What was thalidomide also used for?
Reducing morning sickness for pregnant women
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Why was thalidomide banned?
As the pregnant woman who took it gave birth to their babies and they had limb abnormalities
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What is thalidomide used for now?
To treat leprasy
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What are the two types of drugs?
Legal and illegal
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What happens when people take drugs too often?
They become dependant on it
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What effects to illegal drugs have on the body?
Adverse effects on the heart and circulatory system
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What happens when someone becomes addicted to drugs?
They get withdrawal symptoms if they do not take the drug. These can be physical or psychological
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Alcoholic drinks contain ethanol, which...
Affects the nervous system, helps people relax, lead to a lack of self control, lead to liver damage
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What does tobacco smoke contain?
Carbon monoxide, nicotine and carcinogens
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What can smoking tobacco cause?
Emphysema (damage to the alveoli), bronchitis, heart disease and lung cancer
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What does the carbon monoxide in smoke do?
Reduce the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
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What happens to pregnant woman if they smoke tobacco?
The carbon monoxide in tobacco can deprive the foetus of oxygen, leading to a low birth mass
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What is cannabis?
An illegal drug, it contains chemicals that cause mental illness to some people
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What are drugs that are used to enhance performance?
Stimulants that boost bodily functions e.g. heart rate and anabolic steroids that stimulate muscle growth
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What do organisms need to survive?
Materials from the environment and from the other organisms that live there.
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What do plants compete for?
Light, space, water, nutrients from soil
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What type of organisms are more successful?
Those that are better adapted to their environments
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What do animals compete for?
Food, mates, territory
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What are adaptations?
Features that make an organism well suited to its environment
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What do adaptations increase?
An organisms chance of survival.
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What adaptations help animals survive in arctic conditions?
Bigger SA, thick coat, amount of body fat, camouflage
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What adaptations help plants survive in dry conditions?
Smaller SA, water storage tissue, extensive root system
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What are extremophiles?
Organisms that live in environments that are very extreme. They can be tolerant to high salt levels, temp or pressures
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How are animals and plants adapted to specific features?
Some plants have thorns so they don't get eaten, some animals developed poisons and warning colours to help keep predators away
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How can the distribution of animals and plants be affected?
Changes in the environment due to living factors (change in competitor) or non-living factors (change in temp)
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Examples of living organisms being indicators of pollution...
Lichens are indicators of air illusion as their growth is affected by sulphur dioxide concentrations and invertebrate animals indicate water pollution and are used as indicators of the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water
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What is the source of energy for all organisms?
Radiation from the Sun
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How do plants and algae capture a small fraction of solar energy?
Use photosynthesis to transfer light energy into chemical energy. This energy is stored in the cells of the plant
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How is the transfer of energy represented?
By a food chain
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What is the biomass?
It decreases as the food chain goes on as more energy is used
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Why is biomass and energy lost?
Materials and energy are lost in the organisms waste material, much of the energy released through respiration is transferred to surroundings
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How can energy be conserved?
Reducing the number of stages in the food chain, limiting an animals movement, controlling an animals temperature
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What is decay?
Living organisms remove materials from the environment for growth and other processes. When the organisms excrete waste or die, the materials are returned to the environment
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What are microorganisms?
They break down waste and dead bodies, This decay process releases substances needed by plants for growth
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What conditions are needed for microorganisms to decay?
Warm, moist and aerobic (rich in oxygen)
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What does the nucleus of a cell contain?
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Explain a chromosome
Chromosomes are made up of DNA, a section of a chromosome is called a gene, different genes control the development of different characteristics
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What are genes passed to in sexual reproduction?
The gametes. This is how certain characteristics are inherited
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How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?
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What is variation?
Differences between the characteristics of individuals of the same species
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What are genetic factors for variation?
The genes they have inherited
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What are environmental factors for variation?
The conditions which they have developed e.g. gained weight due to eating habits
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What are the two types of reproduction?
Asexual and Sexual
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What happens during sexual reproduction?
Male and female gametes fuse together. This is called fertilisation. The genes carried by the egg and the sperm are mixed together to produce a new individual. This produces a lot of variation
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What happens during sexual reproduction?
No genetic material is produced at all. Only one parent is needed, so there is no mixing of genes. All offspring are genetically identical to the parent.
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How do plants reproduce?
Asexually to produce clones. Many plants can reproduce by artificial means e.g. plant cuttings
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What is tissue culture?
1. Small groups of cells are scraped from the plant, cells grown on agar. The offspring are identical.
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What is embryo transplant?
1. Cells from a developing animal embryo are split before they become specialised 2. the resulting identical embryos are transplanted into host mothers. Offspring are identical to each other, but not parents
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What is adult cell cloning?
1. Nucleus removed from unfertilised egg cell 2. Nucleus from adult body cell inserted into empty egg cell 3. electric shock causing the egg cell to divide and form embryo 4. embryo inserted into host mother. Offspring identical to donor animal
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What is genetic modification?
Transferring genetic material from one organism to another.
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How does genetic modification work?
1. Individual genes are cut out the chromosomes of an organism using enzymes 2. the genes are then transferred to the cells of other organisms
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Why are genes transferred to cells at an early stage?
So they develop desired characteristics
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What do desired characteristics include in crop plants?
Improved yield, improved resistance to pests, a longer shell life
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What are peoples concern with GM crops?
The effect of GM crops on populations of flowers and insects and the uncertainty about the effects of eating them on human health
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What does studying the similarities and difference between help us to do?
Classify living organisms into animals and plants and microorganisms and understand evolutionary and ecological relationships
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Where does the evidence of how organisms changed come from?
Fossils found in rocks
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What is Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection?
All living things that exist today and many more that are now extinct, evolved from simple life forms that first developed more than three billion years ago.
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Why did Darwin's theory take a long time to be accepted?
It challenged the idea that God made all animals and plants, there was insufficient evidence at the time, the mechanism of inheritance and variation wasn't discovered until 50 years later
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What was Lamarck's theory?
Any change http occurs during the lifetime will be passed on and inherited by their offspring
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What is evolution?
The change in a population over millions of years. It may result in the formation of a new species, which is better adapted to the environment
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Explain the process of evolution
1. Individual organisms within a species show variation 2. individuals better adapted to the environment are more likely to survive, breed successfully 3. the survivors pass on their genes to their offspring, resulting in an 'improved' organism
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What do gene mutations do?
Bring out an more rapid change in a species
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Card 3


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Card 4


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Card 5


When will a person lose weight/body mass?


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