Biology B1

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  • Created by: wafflypig
  • Created on: 25-03-16 12:01
What is the order of classification categories?
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
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What makes up the phylum, chordata?
Animals that have a supporting rod-like structure. (This is the backbone in vertebrates)
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What is a saprophyte?
Something that feeds of dead organisms
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Give an example of a saprophyte
Fungi
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What is a heterotroph?
Something that can't make its own food so it has to move around
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Give an example of a heterotroph
An animal
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What is meant by the word "autotroph"?
An organism that can make its own food by itself
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Give an example of an autotophic organism
A plant (uses chlorophyll in photosynthesis)
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What are the two characteristic of a prokaryote?
Unicellular and have no nucleus
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Give an example of a prokaryote
Bacteria
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Give two characteristics of a protoctist
Unicellular and have a nucleus
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Give an example of a protoctist
Algae
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Give an example of a unicellular organism that cannot be classified and say why
A virus. Discrepancy as to whether it is actually alive
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What are the 3 ways animals are classified?
How the reproduce, how they absorb oxygen and how they regulate internal temperature
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What is a poikilotherm?
Something that is "cold-blooded" so relies on the environment for internal temperature
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What is a homeotherm?
"Warm-blooded". Can regulate its own internal body temperature, regardless of the environment
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What 2 part makes up a binomial name?
Genus and species
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What 4 things can a binomial name be used for?
Identify species, study species, conserve species and target conservation effortsq
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What is a ring species?
A group of related population that live in neighbouring areas
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When can't a ring species produce fertile offspring?
When distant populations attempt to reproduce
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What is a hybrid?
When a male and a female from 2 different species reproduce to birth young.
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When is a hybrid fertile?
When the species that produced it were closely related
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What is variation?
Differences within a species
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What is a phenotype?
The observable characteristics as a result of the genotype
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What is a genotype?
The underlying genes that produce a phenotype
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Give 3 examples of genetic variation
Eye colour, blood group and natural hair colour
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Give 3 examples of environmental variation
Yellow leaves when a plant hasn't been in sunlight, tattoos and piercings
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How does the environment change characteristics?
Diet, social, exercise, temperature, light levels, water etc
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How is the height of a plant determined by genes and the environment?
The maximum height is determined by genes but the actual height depends on how much light it gets to produce food in photosynthesis
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What is continuous variation?
When there are no set categories and results vary within a range
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Give 3 examples of continuous variation
Hand width, number of leaves on a plant, bacterial population etc
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What is discontinuous variation?
When there are two or more distinct categories, each individual falls into only one
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Give 3 examples of discontinuous variation
Blood group, eye colour, antibiotic resistance, colour of a leaf etc
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Name an organism that has adapted to living in hydrothermal vents
Bacteria
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How has bacteria adapted to living in hydrothermal vents?
autotrophic chemosynthesis, can cope with high temperatures/pressures and they are producers for other organisms
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Which 2 animals have adapted to living in cold conditions?
Polar bears and penguins
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How have penguins adapted to living in the antarctic?
Huddle to conserve heat, insulating fat, oily feathers and streamlined body for swimming to catch food
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How have polar bears adapted to arctic conditions?
White fur (camouflage), big feet (spread weight), thick fur (traps insulating air) and have thick layer of blubber (insulation)
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What are the 2 main pieces of evidence that support evolution?
DNA and resistant organisms
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What does natural selection mean?
Survival of the fittest
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Give 3 ways the scientific community validates evidence
Scientific journals, scientific conferences and peer review
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Give an example of how organisms have become resistant
Warfarin used to be used as rat poison but genes gave rats the ability to be immune. Natural selection then made warfarin-resistant populations because only the fittest should survive
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How has DNA research reinforced belief in evolution?
Closely related species diverged and caused slight changes in the DNA. The DNA is still similar (e.g. chimps and humans) so we know they all came from the same place
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What is the theory of evolution?
The theory by Charles Darwin that all organisms evolved from a common ancestor
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What is speciation?
The development of new species because of changing conditions
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What is a gamete?
A sex cells (E.g. sperm cell and ovum)
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Give the 3 steps of speciation
Isolation, changing conditions and inability to produce fertile offspring so species become separate
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Which part of the cell can chromosomes be found?
The nucleus
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What number chromosomes decide sex?
23 (aka X/Y)
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What is the genotype for a male?
XY
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What is the genotype for a female?
XX
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What are the strips on chromosomes called?
Genes
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What do genes do?
Control the development of different characteristics
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What are chromosomes comprised of?
Long strands of DNA coiled together
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What is a gene?
A short section of the DNA
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What is an allele?
Different versions of the same gene
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What 2 things can an allele be?
Dominant and recessive
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Which 2 ways can possible offspring be demonstrated in a diagram?
Punnet squares and genetic diagrams
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How many chromosomes are in a single gamete
23 (half the number)
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How many chromosomes are in a human cell?
46 (23 pairs)
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How many alleles make up a gene?
2
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What does heterozygous mean?
When the 2 genes representing an allele are a mix of dominant and recessive
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What is homozygous?
When the 2 genes representing an allele are the same (both recessive or both dominant)
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What kind of allele causes cystic fibrosis?
A recessive allele
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What are the symptoms of cystic fibrosis?
Fertility issues, breathlessness, lung infections and malnutrition
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Why might a male with cystic fibrosis be infertile?
The Vas Defferens did not form properly, low sperm count and blocked by mucus
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What type of gene is needed to be a cystic fibrosis sufferer?
Homozygous recessive (ff)
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What causes sickle cell anaemia?
When oddly shaped red blood cells get stuck in capillaries (causing a block) which deprives cells of oxygen
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What are the symptoms of sickle cell anaemia?
Fatigue, painful joints/muscles and low iron (anaemia)
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What is homeostasis?
The maintenance of a stable internal environment
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Give 3 ways things are controlled internally
Osmoregulation, thermoregulation and blood glucose regulation
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What is negative feedback?
Changes in the environment cause a counteraction to keep it withing a range
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What temperature do enzymes work best at?
37C (human internal temperature)
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What area of the brain controls homeostasis?
Hypothalumus
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What 3 things happen when we get too hot?
Pilliar erector muscles make hair lie flat by relaxing, sweat to evaporate and transfer heat and vasodilation
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Where is insulin injected into?
Subcutaneous tissue
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Name 3 things that happen when we're too cold
Very little sweat, erector muscles contract to trap air and vasconstriction
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Give 4 points regarding nerves
Very fast, short acting, precise and electrical
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Give 4 points regarding hormones
Slower, long acting, general and chemical
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Define hormones
Chemical messages that travel in the blood to activate a target cell
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What are dendrons?
The branched ending of a neurone
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What is the purpose of the myelin sheath?
An electrical insulator stops messages getting lost and speeds it up
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What is a synapse?
The gap between 2 neurone
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What chemicals aid the diffusion of the messages?
Neurotransmitters
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Where is the electrical impulse sent along in a neurone?
Axon
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What are the 5 sensory organs?
Nose, tongue, ears, eyes and skin
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What is the order of the reflex arc?
Stimulus, receptor, sensory neurone, CNS, motor neurone, effector, repsonse
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What is the CNS?
The Central Nervous System. Consists of the brain and spinal cord. Decides what to do
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What is type 1 diabetes?
A lack of insulin
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What is type 2 diabetes?
A resistance to insulin
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BMI =...
Body mass / (height)^2
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How can type 2 diabetes be controlled?
Diet and exercise
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How can type 1 diabetes be controlled?
Diet, exercise and insulin pens
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What does insulin do to blood sugar levels?
Reduces it
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What happens when blood glucose is too high?
Insulin from pancreas, blood+insulin+glucose goes in liver, insulin makes liver turn glucose into glycogen, blood glucose reduced. Pancreas stops secretion
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What happens when blood glucose is too low?
Glucagon from pancreas, blood+glucose+glucagon into liver, glucagon makes liver turn glycogen into glucose, blood glucose increases. Pancreas stops secretion
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What does auxin do?
Stimulate plant shoots to grow
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What is phototropism?
The growth of a plant in response to light (positively phototropic means towards light)
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What is gravitropism (geotropism)?
The growth of a plant in response to gravity (positive gravitropism = downwards (roots))
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What do gibberellins do?
Stimulates stems to grow, flowering and germination
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How does auxin promote shoot growth?
Diffuse backwards to stimulate cell elongation
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What happens if the tip of a plant's shoot is detached?
Stops growing because there is the auxin
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Why do plants bend towards light?
Auxin makes cells on the shaded side elongate (and not on the lit side) so it bends towards light for photosynthesis in photoropism
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What are the 3 uses of plant hormones?
Selective weedkillers, producing seedless fruit and controlling the ripening of fruit
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Give an example of a depressant drug
Alcohol
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What do depressant drugs do?
Slow down the speed of neurotransmissions at the synapse so reaction time increases
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Give an example of a stimulant drug
Caffeine, nicotine
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What do stimulants do?
Increase the amount of neurotransmitter at the synapse so reaction time decreases
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Give an example of a painkiller
Morphine, heroin, narcotics
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How does morphine work?
Blocks nerve impulses in the brain, stopping feelings of pain
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Give an example of a hallucinogen
LSD
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What do hallucinogens do?
Distort what is seen and heard (hallucinations) by altering pathways that nerve impulses would usually travel along
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What harmful things are in a cigarette?
Carbon monoxide, tar and nicotine
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Why is carbon monoxide harmful?
It binds with haemaglobin so less O2 is carried - could deprive fetuses of O2 in pregnant women
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Why is tar harmful?
It is a carcinogen so can cause lung cancer
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What is a carcinogen?
A substance which can cause cancer
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What is the addictive drug in cigarettes?
Nictotine
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What are the short term effects of alcohol?
Being intoxicated (do things you wouldn't usually do) and slow down reaction time because it is a depressant drug
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What are the long term effects of alcohol?
Brain damage and liver cirrhosis (kills liver cells because there is too much to be broken down)
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How can the NHS test that a transplant will be worthwhile?
Make the person lose weight or stop drinking
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Give 6 ways that pathogens can be passed on
Animal vectors, water, food, air, contact, bodily fluids
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What is an animals vector?
An animal that spread disease
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How is malaria spread?
By the animal vector, anopheles mosquito. It caries the the protozoan
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Give and example of a disease spread by bodily fluids
HIV
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Give an example of an airbourne disease
Influenza virus (flu)
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Name a disease passed on through contact
Athlete's foot fungi
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Give an example of a pathogen that spreads through food
Salmonella
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Which pathogen spreads in water?
Cholera bacteria
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What are the 2 physical barriers in humans from pathogens?
Skin and respiratory system (lined with cilia and mucus)
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What are the chemical barriers against pathogenic spread?
Acidic stomach acid and lysozymes in tears
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What are antiseptics used for?
To stop the spread of disease outside the body
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What are antibiotics used for?
Used to to treat infections inside the body
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What are the 2 types of antibiotics?
Antibacterials and antifungals
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How does a tea tree defend itself against pathogens?
Leaves produce an oil to kill bacteria (antibacterial). Humans can use this in medicine
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What does MRSA stand for?
Methicillin-resistant Staohylococcus aureus
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How do bacteria become resistant to antibacterials?
They mutate. Only the non-resistant bacterium will be killed leaving the mutated ones to reproduce and take over
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Why should you always finish the course of antibiotics?
It gives time for the bacteria to mutate if you don't
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Give 4 examples of parasites
Flea, headlice, mistletoe and tapeworms
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What are parasites?
They they take for their own benefit without giving anything in return
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What is mutualism?
A relationship where both organisms benefit
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Give 4 examples of mutualistic organisms
Oxpeckers, chemosynthetic nitrogen fixing bacteria and cleaner fish
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Which indicator species shows water pollution?
Stone-fly only live in clean water, present = clean
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Which indicator species would suggest air pollution?
Lichen. Leafy, green and healthy lichen = clean air
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How can non-living indicators be used to measure pollution?
Dissolved O2 meters in water and electronic meters measure the SO2 in the air
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In the carbon cycle, what is the only downward (returning) arrow?
Photosynthesis
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Name 3 ways carbon is released
Burning fossil fuels, respiration and decay
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What is the carbon cycle?
A diagram that shows how carbon is continually recycled
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What is the nitrogen cycle?
The flow of nitrogen through nature
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What are the 4 types of bacteria involved in the nitrogen cycle?
Nitrogen fixing, decomposer, nitrifying and denitrifying
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What do nitrogen fixing bacteria do?
Take nitrogen from the atmosphere and into the soil
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What do denitrifying bacteria do?
Put nitrogen back into the atmosphere
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What does nitrogen fixing bacteria do?
Take nitrogen from the atmosphere and into the plant roots
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What is a product of urea decomposition?
Ammonia
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What do nitrifying bacteria do?
Take nitrogen from the ammonia and into the soil
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What is eutrophication?
The leaking of nitrates into bodies of water which may lead to suffocation of fish
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What are the 5 issues with recycling?
Uses energy, time-consuming sorting, expensive equipment needed, quality of materials isn't as good and some materials can't be recycled many times
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Why is recycling metals good?
Less CO2 released from mining and less energy used in ore extraction
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Why is recycling paper good?
Less trees have to be cut down meaning there is less deforestation
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Why is recycling plastics good?
Helps conserve oil resources and less room taken in landfill by plastic that won't decompose for years and years
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How can fertilisers harm water life?
They contain nitrates which can cause eutrophication
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What happens when nitrates are leaked into water bodies?
Algae blooms which means light is blocked and there is competition for photosynthesis. Plants die and microbes feed. Microbes take up O2 so fish suffocate
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Which gas causes acid rain?
Sulfur Dioxide
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What happens when the very tip of a plant shoot is covered?
The plant does not show phototropism
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What happens when the area just behind the tip of the shoot is covered?
The plant still shows phototropism because auxin is exposed. These two tests show that auxins are in the tip
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What happens when the tip of a shoot is replaced by an agar block contains auxin on one side only?
Shoot bends away from the side with the agar-auxin block on because of elongation
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How can discontinuous data be shown on a graph?
With a bell curve over the top of the bars
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How can continuous data be shown on a graph?
A line graph
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What makes up the phylum, chordata?

Back

Animals that have a supporting rod-like structure. (This is the backbone in vertebrates)

Card 3

Front

What is a saprophyte?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give an example of a saprophyte

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a heterotroph?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

SLYmeiling

Something is wrong with flashcard 150 onwards. theres two nitrogen-fixing bacteria cards that mean different things

Jamestiffin

no there isnt

wafflypig

Got full marks. There's nothing wrong. 

jackshaw

there is nothing wrong with it tho

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