Biology AS - Module 2

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What are the features of a Prokaryote cell?
Single-celled, Circular DNA and no Nucleus
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What are the features of a Eukaryote Cell?
Multi-celled, Linear DNA and Nucleus
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What is the function of Centrioles?
Involved in seperation of chromosomes during Cell Division (Spindle Fibres)
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What is the function of Cillia?
Microtubules which allow Cillia to move - push substances along the surface of the cell
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What is the function of Cytoskeleton?
Protein threads inside cytoplasm, arranged in Microfiliments and Microtubules
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What is the function of Flagellum?
Microtubules contract to allow cells (e.g. Sperm Cells) to move and be propelled forward
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What is the function of Mitochondria?
Aerobic Respiration and produces ATP - requires energy to work
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What is the function of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum?
Folds and processes Proteins
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What is the function of Nucleus?
Contains chromatin (DNA and Proteins) and controls Cell function
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What is the function of Lysosomes?
Digestive enzymes that break down organelles
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What is the function of Ribosomes?
Where Proteins and RNA are produced
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What is the function of Golgi Apparatus?
Processes and packages Lipids, Proteins and creates Lysosomes
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What is the function of Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum?
Synthesises and processes Lipids
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Define Magnification?
How much bigger the image is than the object - Image Size divided by Object Size
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Define Resolution?
How well the microscope can distinguish between two close points
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Name 4 different types of Microscopes?
Light Microscopes, Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
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What is a Hydrogen Bond?
A weak interaction between a slightly negative oxygen and a slightly positive Hydrogen
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What is Latent Heat of Fusion?
Energy needed to freeze - Hydrogen bonds form Ice which is less dense and insulates water underneath
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What is Specific Heat Capacity?
Energy needed to change temperature by 1 degree - Keeps rivers and lakes temperature stable and allows life
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What is Adhesion and Capillarity?
Adhesion is water sticking to polar substances - Capillarity is when molecules are attracted together
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Describe Globular Proteins?
Soluble in water due to hydrophillic R groups being outside, have metabolic roles (e.g. Enzymes)
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Describe Fibrous Proteins?
Form fibers, insoluble in water and have structure roles
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Describe Secondary structure of Proteins?
Coiling and pleating of the polypeptide (Alpha Helix and Beta Plate)
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Describe Tertiary Structure of Proteins?
Overall 3D structure - held together by Hydrogen Bonds, Disfulide Bonds, Hydrophillic interactions and Peptide Bonds
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Why does heat disrupt a Protein?
Heat increases kinetic energy and causes some Hydrogen bonds to break - denaturing the proteins
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Describe the structure of a Lipid?
A lipid is Glycerol attached to 3 Fatty Acids
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What is the difference between Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids?
Saturated Fatty Acids have no double bonds whilst Unsaturated Fatty Acids have double bonds
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Describe Structure and function of Cholesterol?
A Hydroxly group attached to a Hydrocarbon Ring and tail - Help strengthen cell membrane and pack Phospholipids together more closely
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Describe Phospholipids?
Found in cell membrane - the tail is hydrophobic and the head is hydrophillic
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What is a polymer?
Large, Complex molecules made of monomers - broken down in Hydrolysis which breaks bond with water molecule
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Name all the Cations?
Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Hydrogen and Ammonium
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Describe Alpha and Beta Glucose?
Alpha is H-OH and Beta is OH-H - is soluble and contains lots of energy
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Name all the Anions?
Nitrate, Hydrocarbonate, Chloride, Phosphate and Hydroxide
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Describe Role of Starch?
Main energy storage in plants, insoluble and made of Amylase and Amylopectin
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Describe Glycogen?
Main energy store in Animals, has lots of branches and very compact
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Describe Cellulose?
Component in Cell Walls, Long and un-branched chains of Beta Glucose and bound by Hydrogen bonds
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Describe 2 Enzyme Theories
Lock and Key is when 1 substrate binds to 1 enzyme and Induced fit is where the Active Site changes shape to fit substrate
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Describe Enzyme function?
Biological catalysts which speed up reactions - Intracellular is working inside the cell and Extracellular is working outside cell
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Name 5 Limiting factors of enzymes?
Temperature, Temperature Coefficient (Cange in rate with 10 degrees of change), pH, Enzyme and Substrate Concentration
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Describe 2 types of Enzyme Inhibition?
Competitive Inhibitor is fiting in Active site and blocking Substrate and No Competitive is binding to Allosteric site which denatures Enzyme
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Explain Reversible and Non-Reversible Reactions?
Reversible is weak hydrogen or ionic bonds and Non-Reversible is strong Covalent Bonds
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Explain Drug, Metabolic Inhibitors?
Antiviral Drugs block replication of DNA to stop spreading whilst Metabolic stops Cell Respiration
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Explain Product Inhibition?
Regulates product production = the last product in Metabolic chain blocks the first Enzyme - stopping Reactions and Products
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the features of a Eukaryote Cell?


Multi-celled, Linear DNA and Nucleus

Card 3


What is the function of Centrioles?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the function of Cillia?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the function of Cytoskeleton?


Preview of the front of card 5
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