Biology and disease key terms - 1.1 Causes

HideShow resource information
Risk Factor
A factor that increases your chance of developing a particular disease
1 of 35
Health
A state of mental, physical and social well being, not just the absence of disease.
2 of 35
Disease
A departure from good health caused by a malfunction in the mind or body.
3 of 35
Parasite
An organism that lives in or on another living organism, causing harm to its host.
4 of 35
Pathogen
An organism that causes disease.
5 of 35
Transmission
The way in which a parasitic micro-organism travels from one host to another.
6 of 35
Vector
An organism that carries a disease-causing organism (pathogen) from one host to another
7 of 35
Opportunistic infections
Infection caused by an organism that infects a host with a weakened (compromised) immune system.
8 of 35
Incidence
The number of new cases of a disease in a certain time period.
9 of 35
Prevalence
The number of people with a particular disease at a certain time.
10 of 35
Mortality
The number of people who die from a disease in a certain time period
11 of 35
Morbidity
The proportion of people in a population who are ill with a particular disease at any one time.
12 of 35
Endemic
A disease that is always present in an area.
13 of 35
Epidemic
A disease that spreads to many people quickly and affects a large proportion of the population.
14 of 35
Pandemic
A disease that is spreading world wide or over continents.
15 of 35
Primary defences
Those that attempt to prevent pathogens from entering the body (skin, mucous membranes).
16 of 35
Immune response
The specific response to a pathogen, which involves the action of lymphocytes and the production of antibodies.
17 of 35
Secondary defences
Defences that attempt to kill or inactivate pathogens that have already invaded the body.
18 of 35
Phagocyte
A cell that can carry out phagocytosis and ingest bacteria and small particles. NEUTROPHILS & MACROPHAGES are phagocytes.
19 of 35
Phagosome
A vacuole inside a phagocyte which is created by an infolding of the plasma membrane to engulf a foreign particle. The foreign particle is held inside the phagosome.
20 of 35
Lymphocyte
A type of white blood cell activated as part of the immune response.
21 of 35
Antigen
A foreign molecule that can provoke an immune system. Organisms have antigens on their plasma membranes.
22 of 35
Antibodies
Protein molecule released by the immune system in response to an antigen, which are capable of neutralising the effects of the antigen.
23 of 35
Specificity
An antibody is specific to a particular antigen because of the shape of the variable region. Each type of antibody has a differently shaped variable region.
24 of 35
Neutralisation
Antibodies covering the pathogen binding sites preventing the pathogen from binding to a host cell and entering the cell.
25 of 35
Agglutination
A large antibody can bind many pathogens together. The group of pathogens are too large to enter the host cell.
26 of 35
Memory cells
Cells that circulate in the blood after an immune response. They speed up the response to a subsequent attack by the same pathogen.
27 of 35
Immunological memory
Ability of the immune system to respond very quickly to antigens that it recognises as they have entered the body before.
28 of 35
Vaccination
A deliberate exposure to antigenic material, which activates the immune system to make an immune response and provide immunity.
29 of 35
Herd vaccination
Using a vaccine to provide immunity to all or almost all of the population at risk.
30 of 35
Ring vaccination
Involves vaccinating all the people in the immediate vaccinity of the new case of disease.
31 of 35
Active immunity
Immunity that is acquired by activation of the immune system.
32 of 35
Natural immunity
Immunity acquired through exposure to disease during the normal course of life.
33 of 35
Artificial immunity
Immunity acquired as a result of deliberate exposure to antigens or by the injecting of antibodies.
34 of 35
Epidemiology
The study of the distribution of a disease in populations, and the factors that influence its spread.
35 of 35

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A state of mental, physical and social well being, not just the absence of disease.

Back

Health

Card 3

Front

A departure from good health caused by a malfunction in the mind or body.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

An organism that lives in or on another living organism, causing harm to its host.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An organism that causes disease.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Health, illness and disease resources »