Biology Additional Revision Questions New

Name three structures found in plant cells and not in animal cells
Chlorplast, cell wall, large vacuole
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Which part of the cell controls the activities of a cell?
Nucleus
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Where is aerobic respiration and ATP production located in the cell?
Mitochondria
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Where does photosynthesis take place in a plant cell?
Chloroplast
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Name the small circles of DNA found only in bacterial cells
Plasmid
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Which of these does not have a cell wall : bacteria, animal or plant cells?
Animal
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Which part of a bacterium helps it to move?
Flagellum
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Which part of a plant cell helps to support it by turgor pressure?
Vacuole
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Describe the chromosomes in a bacterial cell
Single and circular
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Describe the structure of DNA
Double helix
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Name the four bases found in DNA
A, T, C and G
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Wha are the complementary base pairs?
A with T and G with C
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Which type of bonds exist between base pairs?
Hydrogen
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Name the scientists responsible for discovering the structure of DNA using model building
Watson and Crick
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What do we call the sequence of bases that code for a complete protein/polypeptide chain?
Gene
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What are the units/building blocks of proteins called?
Amino acid
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How many different amino acids are there?
20
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how many bases code for one amino acid?
3
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If a polypeptide chain is 120 amino acids long, how many bases will make up the gene that codes for it?
360
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mRNA carries the code for a protein out of the nucleus. Name the process used to make mRNA.
Transcription
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Whereabouts in the cell is the sequence of bases in mRNA converted to a sequence of amino acids?
Ribosome
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Which molecule carries an amino acid to the ribosome?
tRNA
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Name the process used to convert the sequence or mRNA to a sequence of amino acids
Translation
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What do we call a change in the sequence of DNA bases?
Mutation
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Enzymes are described as biological catalysts. What is a catalyst?
Catalysts speed up reactions and are not used up at the end. They lower the activation energy of a reaction
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What kind of molecule are enzymes?
Protein
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What prevents an enzyme from binding with anything else other than its substrate?
They are specific and their active site has a complementary shape to the substrate
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Which part of an enzyme does its substrate bind to?
Active site
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Name the enzyme that digests starch
Amylase
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What colour does iodine solution change to when added to starch?
Blue black
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Why does an increase in temperature speed up an enzyme-catalysed reaction?
It gives the enzyme and substrate more kinetic energy so they collide more often
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Which term describes the best temperature for an enzyme?
Optimum
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What happens when to an enzyme if they are heated to above 45°C?
Denature
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What would you expect the optimum pH to be for an enzyme in the stomach?
1 or 2
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Name the global collaboration to map the sequence of all the genes in a human being
Human genome project
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Name the enzyme used to cut sections of DNA and remove genes from their chromosomes
Restriction enzymes
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What term describes the bases at the end of the cut gene that allow it to pair up with other exposed bases?
Sticky ends
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Name the enzyme used to join DNA and insert the new gene into its chromosome
DNA ligase
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Which part of a bacterium is used to transfer a new gene?
Plasmid
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Name one protein that can be made by the process of genetic engineering
Insulin
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Name the type of cell division used for growth and asexual reproduction
Mitosis
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How many cells are made if one cell divides by mitosis three times?
8
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If a cell divides by mitosis and its diploid number is 24, how many chromosomes will be in each of the new cells?
24
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If a cell divides by meiosis and its diploid number s 24, how many chromosomes will be in each of the new cells?
12
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How many cells are made when a cell divides by meiosis?
4
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In cloning, which part of an egg cell has to be removed and replaced with that of a diploid adult body cell?
Haploid
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How is the new cell stimulated to start dividing?
Electric shock
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What effect does cloning have on the gene pool of a population?
Gene pool is reduced in size
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Which term describes how a stem cell changes into a specialised cell?
Differentiates
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Which part of the cell controls the activities of a cell?

Back

Nucleus

Card 3

Front

Where is aerobic respiration and ATP production located in the cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where does photosynthesis take place in a plant cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name the small circles of DNA found only in bacterial cells

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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