Biology A level - lipids

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What are monosaccharides?
The monomers of carbohydrates and a single sugar unit
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What are disaccharides?
2 sugar units bonded by glycosidic bonds
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What is sucrose?
(glucose+fructose) form in which sugar is transported in a plant
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What is maltose?
(glucose+glucose) produced when amalyse breaks down starch
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What is lactose?
(galactose+glucose) the sugar found in milk
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What are polysaccharides?
Long chains of glucose molecules e.g. Starch and glycogen
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In the reaction that forms a glycosidic bonds what is loss?
In the reaction that forms a glycosidc bond there is a loss of one molecule of water - condensation reaction
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What breaks the glycosidic bond?
Hydrolysis breaks the glycosidic bond adding back the water molecule
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What is the overall charge of water?
The O molecules is - and the H is + (dipolar), so the overall charge is positive
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What happens when hydrogen bonds form between the two molecules of H20?
Hydrogen bonds form between the two molecules of H20 which creats cohesion
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When cohesion happens what does this happen?
This helps water to flow, making it good for transporting substances
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What is the benefit of water taking a long time to heat and cool down?
It takes a long time to heat and cool down water which means living organisms can survive as temperature fluctuations are small
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What is starch?
Starch is the main energy storage material in plants. It is made up of a mixture of two molecules, amylose and amylopectin
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What is Amylose?
A long, unbranched chain of glucose joined together by 1-4 glycosidic bonds
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What are the characteristics of amylose?
The angles of the glycosidc bonds give it a coiled structure. this makes it compact ad good for storage - it is also insoluble in water so it does not swell by osmosis
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What is glycogen?
The main energy storage material in animals
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What are the properties of glycogen?
Its structure is similar to amylopectin. Loads of branches means that glucose can be released quickly. it is also very compact molecule so its good for storage. It is also insoluble in water so it does not swell or effect osmosis
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What is amylopectin?
A long, branched chain of glucose joined by 1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds.
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What are the properties of amylopectin?
Its side branches allow the enzymes to get to the glycosidic bonds easily meaning that glucose can be released quickly
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What is triglyceride?
A triglyceride is made up of 3 fatty caid joined to 1 glycerol molecule
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What makes lipids insoluble in water?
The fatty acid tails are hydrophobic which makes lipids insoluble in water
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are disaccharides?

Back

2 sugar units bonded by glycosidic bonds

Card 3

Front

What is sucrose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is maltose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is lactose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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