Biology

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Mrs gren
Movement - To move from A to B
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Respiration - To take in and release oxygen
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Sensitivity - To react to changes in the environment
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Growth - To develop over time
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Reproduction - To create new life copies of yourself
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Excretion - To produce and release waste
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Nutrition - To consume a substance which can be used as a source of energy
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Evolution
The process of development that organisms undergo to changes in their surroundings over a period of time.
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What happened during the Pre-Cambrian era?
1. Simple multi cellular organisms evolved.
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What happened during the Paleozoic era?
2. Plants colonized the land. First insects, amphibians and reptiles appeared.
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What happened during the Mesozoic era?
3. First dinosaurs and mammals appeared. Birds evolved from reptiles.
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What happened during the Cenozoic era?
4. Ice age. Modern humans.
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Spontaneous Generation
Some people thought that living things could just appear from non-living things. Louis Pasteur proved this wrong in 1860.
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Primordial Soup
Miller Urey discovered that the atmosphere was made up of unbreakable gases. In his experiment, he created a mixture of gases that would've been present in the early earth (with electrical sparks) produced compounds that resemble proteins.
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What bacteria are commonly used in petri dishes?
E-coli
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What should you place a petri dish in?
An incubator set to 34 degrees Celsius. The temperature must not be 37 degrees because that is body temperature.
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Name three products which kill bacteria.
Disinfectants, antibiotics and antiseptics all kill bacteria.
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Label the parts of a bacterium:
A. Cell wall. B. Flagellum. C. Nucleoid. D.Cell membrane.
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Extremophile
A bacterium which thrives in hostile environments. E.g: high temperatures, high acidity.
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Name the bacteria needed to make yogurt.
Lactobacillus, Bulgarius and Streptococcus thermophilus.
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What is the word equation for photosynthesis?
Water + Carbon Dioxide ---> Glucose + Oxygen (+ biomass)
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What is the by-product of photosynthesis?
Oxygen
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What is the site of photosynthesis in green plants?
The chloroplasts contain chlorophyll and are the site of photosynthesis.
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Which part of a plant is adapted for photosynthesis?
The leaves because they contain lots of palisade cells that have lots of chloroplasts.
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What is pasteurisation?
It is when you heat and cool the milk prior to adding starter culture. It is necessary to kill harmful bacteria.
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What do plants use glucose for?
They use it to make cellulose, fats, proteins and starch.
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What is a fossil?
A fossil is the pre-historic of an organism that has been preserved in a rock. They are formed when layers of sediment get buried for a long time.
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What is the study of fossils called?
Paleontology
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Fossil record
The documentation of fossils and their features.
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Why are important to Biologists?
Because they tell the evolutionary path of species. They explain how the organism lived in the past. From them we can find out how life on Earth has changed.
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Permineralisation
1. Replacement of original tissues with minerals from the surrounding rock.
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Unaltered Preservation
2. The organism is preserved in its original state (e.g. trapped in ice or tree sap)
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Carbonisation
3. The removal of all but the carbon elements from the organism.
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Authigenic Preservation
The fossils are moulds or casts of organisms which have dissolved or rotted away.
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Recrystallisation
Crystals form within the original structure, eventually replacing it with a crystallised copy.
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Name the 5 kingdoms that are under the domain Eukarya.
Animals, plants, fungi, bacteria and protoctista
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Characteristics of animals
Multi-cellular. Heterotrophic. Organ systems. Mobile (most). Sexual reproduction (most). Vertebrates - Birds
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Characteristics of plants
Multicellular. Autotrophic. Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction - Fern
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Characteristics of bacteria
aka Monera. Prokaryotic. Bacteria and cynobacteria. No clear nucleus (primitive). Most are heterotrophic. Cynobacteria are autotrophic. No organelles. Most are single-celled. - E-coli
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Characteristics of protoctista
Most are single-celled. Autotrophic, heterotrophic, or both. Asexually and sexually. - Euglena
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Heterotrophic
Absorb nutrition
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Autotrophic
Manufacture own food.
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Chlorophyll
Catalyst
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Hyphae
It's cell wall is made up of chitin.
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DKPCLOFGS
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
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What separates Eukarya from Bacteria and Archae?
They have a nucleus and no organelles
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What separates Archae from Eukarya and Bacteria?
Procaryotic- No nucleus or organelles. Extremophiles (not all).
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What is the blind spot?
It is where the optic nerve leaves the retina. It is deprived of rods and cones and cannot respond to light.
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How does the lens focus on the image?
The brighter the image, the smaller the pupil. The further away the image is, the larger the lens.
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What was the Cambrian Explosion
It was the sudden appearance of many different animals, which occurred approximately 540-485 mya (over a 10 million year period).
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What changed during the cambrian explosion?
During the cambrian explosion, all organisms were aquatic. Towards the end of the Cambrian period, we saw the massive appearance of the first
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What groups are the vertebrates divided into?
Fish, mammal, bird, reptile and amphibians.
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