Biology

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what is respiration?
the release of energy using oxygen to break down glucose
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what is the function of a cell wall and what is it made of?
helps to protect and support the cell and its made of cellulose
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what is the function of the Nucleus?
stores genetic information as genes and controls the activities of the cell
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what is the function of cytoplasm?
where most chemical reactions take place
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what is the function of the cell membrane?
it surrounds all cells. its partially permeable so it controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell
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what is the function of mitochondria?
where respiration takes place
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what is the function of the chloroplasts?
they contain chlorophyll which absorbs light energy
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what is the function of ribosomes?
where protein synthesis occurs
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what adaptions effect the rate of diffusion?
concentration gradient, temperature and surface area
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what is the equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O -----> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + energy
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what is the equation for respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -----> 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy
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what is the role of the muscular tissue of an animal?
allows movement by contraction
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what is the role of the glandular tissue of an animal?
secretes enzymes
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what is the role of the epithelial tissue of an animal?
lining to cover parts of the body
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what is the role of the epidermal tissue in a plant?
covers the plant
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what is the role of the mesophyll tissue in a plant?
carries out photosynthesis
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what is the role of the xylem tissue in a plant?
transports water up the stem
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what is the role of the phloem tissue in a plant?
transports glucose all over the plant
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what is diffusion?
the movement of dissolved particles from an area of high concentration to a low concentration
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how is a red blood cell specialised?
large surface area and no nucleus to carry more oxygen
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what tissues does the stomach contain?
glandular tissues
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why does the stomach need muscles?
to churn the food and digestive juices of the stomach together
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how many different amino acids are there?
20
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what are proteins and enzymes made from?
amino acids
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what are enzymes?
biological catalysts that speed up a chemical reaction
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what are the three functions of enzymes?
building large molecules from lots of smaller ones/ changing one molecule into another/ breaking down large molecules into smaller ones
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what is the lock and key theory?
enzymes are long chains of amino acids folded into a spherical shape. they have a small indentation where other molecules can fit into it. this is called the active site. the substrate is able to bind to the active site as it fits into it like a key.
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what makes an enzyme specific?
the active site
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what parts of the body are involved in the digestion process?
the mouth, the stomach, the pancreas and the small intestine
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what do the salivary glands do?
produce salivary amylase which starts digestion of starch into sugar
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what enzyme does the stomach make and what does it do?
secretes pepsin, a type of protease and it starts the digestion of protein into amino acids
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what enzymes do the small intestine make and what do they do?
it makes all types of enzymes but they don't work well in acidic conditions so bile is released into the small intestine to nutralise it. the digestion of carbohydrates is completed by amylase and the digestion of protein in completed by protease.
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how does temperature effect enzymes?
if the temperature is too hot, the bonds in the enzyme start to break and the shape starts to change and so the substrate will no longer fit. this is called denaturing
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what is protease used for in industry?
used to pre-digest proteins during the manufacture of baby foods
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what is lipase used for in industry?
used - together with protease - in biological detergents to break down - digest - the substances in stains into smaller, water soluble substances
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what is carbohydrase used for in industry?
used to convert starch syrup, which is relatively cheap, into sugar syrup, which is more valuable - for example, as an ingredient in sports drinks
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what are pathogens?
microorganisms which cause disease
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how do bacteria cause disease?
by entering your body and splitting in two. they often produce toxins which affect your body
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how do viruses cause disease?
by entering your body and taking over your cells and reproduce, damaging and destroying your cells.
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how do lymphocytes defend against pathogens?
your WBC recognizes the antigen as foreign. they produce antibodies which are specific to each antigen. the antibodies lock onto the antigens on the pathogen. the antibodies cause the pathogen to be destroyed
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how do phagocytes defend against pathogens?
they engulf the pathogen and this destroys the pathogen
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how does a vaccination work?
it is a weakened form of the disease you are vaccinating against and it makes the WBC make antibodies so that in the future if you get the disease, your WBC can make the antibodies faster and you wont experience the symptoms
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what are the pro's of vaccination?
less risk of infection/ very successful/ now we rarely see diseases/ often life long
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what are the con's of vaccination?
a child could react badly/ allergic reaction/ pain/ fear of needles
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what is antibiotic resistance? 1
when you start taking the antibiotics, some bacteria will be killed but some won't. the weak bacteria is killed first so only the resistant bacteria are left. you then stop taking the antibiotics because you feel better.
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what is antibiotic resistance? 2
but the resistant bacteria start to reproduce so if you take the antibiotic again, it wont work because all of the bacteria are resistant
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how do we prevent antibiotic resistance?
stop giving out antibiotics when we don't need them
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Card 2

Front

what is the function of a cell wall and what is it made of?

Back

helps to protect and support the cell and its made of cellulose

Card 3

Front

what is the function of the Nucleus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is the function of cytoplasm?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is the function of the cell membrane?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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