Biology

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  • Created by: NicoleAD
  • Created on: 26-04-16 16:26
What is a monomer?.
A monomer is a singular building block, which can be joined together by condensation reactions.
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What is a polymer?
A polymer is made up of a long chain of monomers.
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What is a condensation reaction?.
A condensation reaction is one in which a water molecule is produced within the reaction, this produces a bond between two monomers.
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What is a hydrolysis reaction?.
This is the addition of a water molecule to a reaction, this breaks a bond between monomers.
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What is a monomer of sugars called?.
Monosaccharide.
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Describe the benedicts test.
Heat the sample with benedicts reagent, if it goes from blue to red then reducing sugars are present.
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What are reducing sugars?.
all monosaccharides, maltose and lactose.
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List the three monosaccharides.
Glucose, galactose and fructose.
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List the three disaccharides.
Fructose, maltose and sucrose.
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What is the name of the bond that forms between two monosaccharides?.
This is known as a glycosidic bond.
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Whats the structure of a triglyceride?.
Three fatty acids and a glycerol.
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What is the structure of a phospolipid?.
Two fatty acids tails,a glycerol and a phosphate head.
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Define the term 'saturated fatty acids'.
This means that they don't have any double bonds between their carbon atoms. Its saturated with hydrogen.
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Describe the emulsion test.
mix ethanol with your sample then shake with water, a milky emusion will form.
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What are the monomers of proteins ?.
The monomers of proteins are called amino acids.
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What is the name of the bond between two amino acids?.
The name of the bond is a peptide bond.
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What is the primary structure of a protein?.
The primary structure of a protein is how the amino acids are arranged in a polypeptide chain.
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What can form in the secondary structure of a protein?.
Either an alpha helice or beta pleated sheets.
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Describe the buiret test.
solution needs to be alkaline so we will first add a few drops of sodium hydroxide solution followed by copper sulfate and then if it turns purple proteins are present.
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What are the bonds that can form in the tertiary structure of a protein?.
Hydrogen bonding, disulfide bridges, ionic bonds and also peptide bonds.
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Define the term 'catalyst'.
This is a chemical which speeds up the rate of a reaction, with out being used up or changed in the process. This provides an alternate pathway for a reaction by lowering the activation energy.
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Define the term 'activation energy'.
The energy that needs to be supplied before a chemical reaction will start.
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Briefly describe the lock and key model.
The lock and key model is when the enzyme and substrate form a complex, they must fit together perfectly and do not change shape.
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Briefly describe the induced fit model.
The induced fit model is when the active site slightly changes shape in order to best suite the substrate.
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List the four factors which affect enzyme activity.
Temperature, pH, substrate concentration and enzyme concentration.
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What is a non competitive inhibitor?.
A non competitive inhibitor is one in which doesnt compete with the substrate for the active site but binds away from it, this therefore changes the shape of the active site so denaturing it. This doesnt allow the enzyme substrate complex to form.
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What is a competitive inhibitor?.
This is one of which competes with the substate, so will block the active site. This has a similar shape to the substrate. Prevents the reaction from occuring.
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What is the structure of a nucleotide?.
There is a pentose sugar with nitrogenous base and a phosphate attached.
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What bond forms between a phosphate group and two ester bonds?.
This is a phosphodiester bond.
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What are the four bases in DNA?.
Adenine,thymine,cytosine and guanine.
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What are the four bases in RNA?.
Adenine, uracil, cytosine and guanine.
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How many hydrogen bonds form between adenine and thymine?.
Two hydrogen bonds form between adenine and thymine.
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How many hydrogen bonds form between cytosine and guanine?.
Three hydrogen bonds form between cytosine and guanine.
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Card 2

Front

What is a polymer?

Back

A polymer is made up of a long chain of monomers.

Card 3

Front

What is a condensation reaction?.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a hydrolysis reaction?.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a monomer of sugars called?.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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