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  • Created by: fliss
  • Created on: 02-04-16 15:33
cell theory
all cells come from pre existing cells, smallest subunits of life, living organism are composed of cells
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made up of many cells
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single celled organism
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1.measure scale bar 2.make into the same units 3.divide by number on scale bar
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sa to volume ratio
larger the organism the bigger sa to volume ratio, rate of transfer of materal depends of sa and rate of material depends on volume
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prokaryotic cell
philli, 70s ribosome, flagella, cytoplsm, cell wall, nucleotid
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euraryotic cell
80s ribosome, golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic recticulum, mitocondria, vesciles, nucleus
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stem cells
undifferenciated cells of multicellular organisms, they differenciate into speciallised cells e.g. nerve cells
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leukemia treatment with stem cells
its blood cancer, stem cells are taken from bone marrow in the pelvis and stem cells are extracted, chemo removes the cancerous cells , stem cells are then reinserted and turn into white and red blood cells
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movement of water molecules from low concentration to high concentration, if the solution is separated from the water by the plasma membrane , there free to diffuse alongthe concentration gradient
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movement of molecules freely from high concentration to low concentration gradient it occurs across plasma membrane when its fully permable to the solute
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facilitated diffusion
some substances are unable to pass through because they are two large they have an impact on channel protiens which form pores large enough to allow diffusion
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active transport
uses energy from ATP transports along the concenration gradient, 1. atp binds to protien carrier, turns into adp and chnages shape 2. allows molecules transport along membrane 3. adp move away and repeats
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mitotic index
number of cells in mitosis/ total number of cells
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cell cycle
interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
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G1= cell performs differenciational functions s= chromosomes duplicate G3= more growth of cell, transcription and translation , prep for cell division
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mitoisis - prophase
dna supercoil, 2 chromatids held by centromere nucleus disapears and the membrane breaks down
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`moves to the centre of the plates
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centromeres divide, single fibres shorten, sister chromatids move to opposite poles
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nuclear membrane reforms become chromatids
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made up of many cells

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sa to volume ratio


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