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Non self substance, plasma membrane and stimulate the production of antibodies
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polypeptide, production of lympctye, binds to antigens
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clonal selection
Vast number of identical plasma cell which respond to antigen
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to many different B cells activated
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Antigen production
1. engluf antigen my macrophage 2.macrophage presents antigen on its protien, initates helper t cell 3.activation of t cell, 4.activate b cell 5. clone antibody- b cells divide, memory cells
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active immunity
persistance of memory cells upon reinfection antibodies are produced quicer and destroyed before symptoms show
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Passive immunity
anitbody from another organism where immunity is stimulated e.g. placenta
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COntains antigen which trigger immunity but dont cause the disease, 2 types - inactivated and alternuated
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allgeric response
antigen enters, releases histomenes, binds to receptors causing them to become leaky, causing symptons
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block action of histomines at receptors
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Monocolonal antibodies
Large quantites of single antibody-- 1. lab animal injected with antibody 2.produces B lymphocytes 3.removed and fused with tumour cells forms hybridoma 4. divide and produces on type of antibody
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Pregnancy test
Urine with HCG moves up strip, attaches to mobile HCG with coloured granuales, immobile trap the mobile and a blue colour appears, they then combine to cause another blue strip
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removal of waste products of metabolic pathways and processes e.g. urea
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organism which control solute concentration of blood
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allow internal concentration to be the same as other solutes in environment
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ADH released by pituatry, walls of collecting duct become impermable large dilute urine
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ADH released, walls become permable, small amount of concentrated urine
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ultra filtration in glomerous
filtration of blood under pressure, small molecules are filtered out of the blood into bowmans capsule, promoted due to high blood pressure
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waste prodcuts
Fish- aquatic habitiat, amonia waste, toxic but dilutes birds- terrestral, urine acid waste, non toxic mammals- terrestial aquatic, urea, low toxic
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detecting kidney issues
urine test to test for blood, glucose, protiens drugs ----- treatment - tranplant or haemodralysis
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Blood drawn from the arm passed through a machine for 3/4 hrs, pores in membrane allow small particles to pass through but not protiens or blood
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Production of male gametes - mitosos, cell growth, meiosis to prodcue haploid cells annd then differenciated into gametes
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arrival-binding-acrosome reaction-corticial reaction-mitosis
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Human chronic gonactrophin (HCG)
secreted by blasosyst then after 16 weeks preg relaeased from placenta role=maintains corpus luteum and maintains uterus lining
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disc shaped, many projections called billi, blood of fetus flows close to mothers blood, so allows exchange of materail
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maternal to fetus exchange
oxygen, glucose, lipids, water, amino acids, hormones
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fetus to mother
c02, urea, hormones and water
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polypeptide, production of lympctye, binds to antigens

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clonal selection


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Antigen production


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