Biology (B1 OCR 21st Century)

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  • Created by: emily.16
  • Created on: 24-02-16 17:05
Nucleus (human cell)
Contains genetic material, and 23 pairs of chromosomes
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Genetic Material...
... is arranged into chromosomes
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Chromosome
One very long molecule of DNA (coiled-up), always in pairs (one from each parent)
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Gene/s
Short length of a chromosome, controls the development of different characteristics, each gene is code for making a certain protein. (They're instructions for cells)
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Protein/s
The building blocks of cells, made up from long chains of different amino acids
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Allele
Two different versions of the same gene
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Structural Proteins
Things like hair, skin, blood, cytoplasm in our cells e.g. collagen - found in tendons, bones and cartilage
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Functional Proteins
for example, enzymes are proteins that aid digestion by breaking down food molcules, like amylase (a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch to maltose)
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Genotype
All of the genes an organism has
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Phenotype
The characteristics that an organism displays
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Characteristics
Can be controlled by genes (e.g. eye colour) or environmental factors like how and where you live (e.g.scars) - or both can contirbute (e.g. weight)
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid - complex chemical that carries genetic information
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Sex Cells
Sperm and Egg cells, contain half the usual amount of chromosomes (23 SINGLE chromosomes)
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Homozygous (for a trait)
You have two alleles the same for that particular gene
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Heterozygous (for a trait)
You have two different alleles for that particular gene
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Dominant Allele
The characteristic caused by this allele with be shown, even if there's only one dominant and the other is recessive
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Recessive Allele
To show the characteristic caused by this, both alleles need to be recessive
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Sex Chromosomes
The 23rd pair of chromosomes, labelled X or Y. XX means you're female, and XY means you're male.
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Genetic Disorders
Caused by faulty alleles e.g Huntington's and Cystic Fibrosis
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Genetic testing
Embryos, Children and Adults can be tested to see if they have alleles for disorders. Lots of issues surrounding it.
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Clones
Genetically identical organisms e.g. asexual reproduction, identical twins, or in the lab (animal clones)
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Stem Cells
Unspecialised cells - they can develop into different types of cells. The two main types are Embryonic and Adult (lots of controversy surrounding it)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

... is arranged into chromosomes

Back

Genetic Material...

Card 3

Front

One very long molecule of DNA (coiled-up), always in pairs (one from each parent)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Short length of a chromosome, controls the development of different characteristics, each gene is code for making a certain protein. (They're instructions for cells)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The building blocks of cells, made up from long chains of different amino acids

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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