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Define tidal volume
The volume of one breath at rest.
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Define vital capacity
Maximum inhalation after maximum exhalation.
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Define residual volume
Volume of air left in lungs after maximum exhalation.
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Features of good gas exchange system
Good blood supply, short diffusion pathway, large sa:vol ratio.
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6 tissues in the trachea/bronchi/alveoli
Connective tissue, elastic fibres, smooth muscle tissue,squamous epithelium,cilliated epithelium, glandular tissue(goblet cells)
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What is connective tissue for?
Structure, holds airway open and prevents them from opening during low air pressure.
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What is smooth muscle tissue for?
Contract to make lumen narrower, response to harmful substance.
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What are elastic fibres for?
Re-coil airways back to normal size after smooth muscle contracts, helps expel air.
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What is squamous epithelium tissue for?
Short diffusion distance between alveolar air and capillary blood.
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What is cilliated epithelium tissue for?
To waft mucus back up the throat to be swallowed and destroyed by stomach acid.
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What is glandular tissue (goblet cells) for?
To secrete mucus.
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What are the bronchioles for?
Creates a lot of pathways for air to enter and exit.
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What are alveoli for?
To create large surface are for gas exchange.
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What is the capillary endothelium wall for?
To create a short diffusion distance between wall and alveolar air.
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In what direction do the intercostal muscles move during inhalation?
Out and up.
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In what direction does the diaphragm move in during inhalation?
Down and flattens.
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In what direction do the intercostal muscles move during exhalation?
In and down.
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In what direction does the diaphragm move in during exhalation?
Relaxes back to dome shape.
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What is the breathing cavity called?
Thoracic cavity.
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Two issues of gas exchange in bony fish?
Small sa:vol ratio and impermeable membrane so air can not diffuse through skin.
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What increases surface area in bony fish gas exchange?
Gill filaments.
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Card 2

Front

Define vital capacity

Back

Maximum inhalation after maximum exhalation.

Card 3

Front

Define residual volume

Back

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Card 4

Front

Features of good gas exchange system

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

6 tissues in the trachea/bronchi/alveoli

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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