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Why do we need transport systems
because we have a small surface area to volume ratio
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what is double circulation
heart - lungs - heart - body - heart
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what are blood vessels made up of
arteries, veins and capilliaries
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cells all animals have
cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus and mitochondria
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cells all plants ALSO HAVE
cellulose cell wall, vacuole, chloroplasts
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releasing energy from food
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Biological catalysts in metabolic reactions
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levels of organisation
organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
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aerobic respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 = 6H20
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anaerobic respiration
Glucose = lactic acid (animals) Glucose = ethanol + co2
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is the net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, it goes down a concentration gradient and is a passive process.
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is the movement of water molecules move across a partially permeable membrane, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, going down a concentration gradient.
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Active Transport
is the movement of molecules against a concentration gradient. USES ENERGY.
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Experimental evidence of diffusion
agar blocks dyed with potassium permanganate
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Experimental evidence of osmosis
viskus tubing or potato tissue or plant cells
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multi or unicellular. Saprotrophic nutrition eg. moulds and yeast
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microscopic, single celled organisms e.g.. Lactobacillus, pneumoccus
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Parasites, reproduce inside of host cells
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Fungi, Bacteria, Protoctists and Viruses are all
Pathogens that cause disease
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Nasal passages
warm, clean add moisture to the air
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stops food getting into the lungs when you swallow
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Oesophagus (human gas exchange system)
carries food to stomach
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voice box
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tube with incomplete rigs of cartilage carries air to lungs; lined with cells making mucus, and cells with cilia which move the mucus away from the lungs
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Left bronchus
carries air to lung
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carries air to lungs
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Tiny air sacs adapted for gaseous exchange
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Sheet of muscle with a fibrous middle part which is domed; it helps make breathing movements and separates the thorax from the abdomen
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bones that protect and ventilate the lungs
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internal intercostal muscles
pulls ribs down and in when you breathe out
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external intercostal muscles
pulls ribs up and out when you breathe in
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pleural membranes
thin most membranes forming an airtight seal around lungs and separating inside of thorax from lungs
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pleural fluid
liquid filling pleural cavity and acting as lubrication, so surfaces of lungs do not stick to inside of chest wall
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Adaptations of the alveoli
a large surface arean, a rich blood supply, steep diffusion gradient between the alveoli and the blood, short diffusion distance between the air and the blood
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Tobacco smoke has the following effects
cilia are destroyed so dirt and bacteria are not removed. Emphysema, lung cancer, co poisoning
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the walls of the alveoli are damaged and break down to form large irregular air spaces which do not exchange gases efficiently
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Lung cancer
tar and other chemicals cause cells to mutate and form cancers in the lungs and throat
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Experimental evidence of starch
brown iodine solution turns blue-black with starch
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Experimental evidence for glucose
blue benedicts solution turns orange-red when heated with simple sugars like glucose
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Experimental evidence for the energy content
burning it and meaning its mass before and after
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sugars and starches. made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen. Found in bread, pasta and rice
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long chains of amino acids found in foods such as meat, fish and cheese. Made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
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Made up of fatty acids and glycerol. Found in butter and eggs. Made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen and contain a lot of energy
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Vitamin A
makes chemicals in the retina, protects the surface of the eye and connective tissue. Found in fish liver oils, carrots and butter.
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Vitamin C
sticks together cells lining surfaces in the body. Found in fresh fruits and vegetables
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Vitamin D
helps bones absorb calcium and phosphorus. Found in fish liver oils, slight and cream
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makes bones and teeth. Found in dairy products
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makes haemoglobin in red blood cells to carry oxygen. Found in red meat, liver and eggs
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Carbohydrase eg. amylase and maltase
found in salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine. Acts on starch. Breakdown products are glucose
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Protease eg. pepsin and trypsin
found in stomach, pancreas and small intestine. Acts on protein. Breakdown products are amino acids.
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found in pancreas and small intestine. Acts on lipids. Breakdown products are fatty acids and gylcerol
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Absorbed into bloodstream in small intestine
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line the small intestine, have a large surface area and short diffusion distances
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movement of digested food into the cells of the body in which they are used
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the removal of waste products
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biggest artery in the body, carries oxygenated blood around body
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Pulmonary artery
takes deoxygenated blood to the lungs
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Pulmonary being
brings oxygenated blood from the lungs
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Vena cava
brings deoxygenated blood into the heart
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Muscular heart wall is....
thicker on the left as it has to pump blood around the body
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yellow liquid that transports dissolved food molecules, co2 and urea. Mainly water
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Red blood cells
bioconcave, no nucleus contain haemoglobin and transport oxygen
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White blood cells (lymphocytes)
produce antibodies to destroy microorganisms and memory lymphocytes give us immunity disease to specific diseases
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White blood cells (phagocytes)
engulf and digest microorganisms
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cell fragments which help clot the blood
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nerves carry informatio
stimulus - receptor - coordination - effector - response
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looking at distance objects
ciliary muscles relax, suspensory ligaments pull tight, lens goes thin as the light needs to be bent to focus on the retina
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looking at close objects
ciliary muscles contract, suspensory ligaments go slack, lens is more spherical and fatter as the light needs to bend much more to be focused on the retina
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In bright light
the circular muscles contract, the iris gets bigger, the pupil gets smaller
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In dim light
the radial muscles contract, the iris gets smaller, the pupil gets bigger
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found in the pituitary gland and controls the water content of the blood by its effect on kidneys
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Insulin and glucagon
found in the pancreas and lower and raises blood glucose levels
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found in the adrenal glands and prepares the body for stressful situations with "fight or flight"
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Oestrogen and Progesterone
found in the ovaries and controls development of female secondary sexual characteristcs and regulates the menstrual cycle
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found in the testes and controls the development of male secondary sexual characteristics involved in sperm production
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a chemical message carried in the blood that causes a change in the body
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Negative feedback
keeps conditions constant inside your body
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responses of plants to light coming from one direction
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responses of plants to the force of gravity
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all of the organisms of a particular species living in an ecosystem at a particular time
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all the populations of living organisms living in an ecosystem at a particular time
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place where specific organisms live
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used to sample the distribution of organisms in their habitats to estimate their population size
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trophic levels
producers, primary, secondary and tertiary consumers and decomposers
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the character they code for shows in the appearance of the individual, whether they inherit one or two of the alleles
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the character they code for shows in the appearance of the individual only if the allele is present in both chromosomes
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a rare and random change in the genetic information by the adding, subtraction or substitution of a base letter. they can be beneficial, harmful or neutral changes.
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both alleles are the same
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it has two different alleles
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describes the physical characteristics of an organism
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describes the alleles that a cell or organism has for a particular feature
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neither allele is dominant and both contribute to the appearance of the offspring
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molecule of inheritance. double helix
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section of DNA
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asexual reproduction
reproduction which involves only one parent and produces offspring identical to the parents
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plant hormones which are involved in controlling the phototropisms
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cellular respiraton
respiration that takes place in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of the cells
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cellulose cell wall
the rigid cell wall which surrounds plant cells
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the green pigment contained in the chloroplast which captures light energy from the sun
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organisms which feed on other organisms
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the stage of the cardiac cycle when the heart fills with blood
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when a lake or river becomes enriched with nutrients and excess plant growth is followed by decay. Microorganisms use up oxygen from the water so that other organisms can no longer survive.
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the haploid sex cells which contain only one set of chromosomes. Male gametes include sperm and pollen female gametes include ova and ovules
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asexual cell division, a single-stage process which results in two daughter cells
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the basic unit of the nervous system, they are cells which carry minute electrical impulses around the body.
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natural selection
the process by which evolution happens. Organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support. Those best adapted to their environment will survive to breed and pass on their characteristics.
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the control and regulation of the levels of mineral irons and water in the cytoplasm of a cell or in the blood of an organism
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the gap between two neurones where the transmission of the impulse is chemical rather than electrical.
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The loss of water vapour from the surface of the leaves of plants. This occurs through the stomata when they are opened to allow the gaseous exchange needed for photosynthesis to take place
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umbilical cord
The structure that connects a foetus to the placenta. Food and oxygen travel from the mother to the developing foetus through the umbilical cord and waste products such as co2 and urea pass in the other direction
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giving a dose of a weakened or death pathogen to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies and develop immunity to a disease
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the transport tissue in plants which carries water and mineral irons from up the root through the stems to the leaves
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the new diploid individual formed when the haploid male and female gametes meet and fuse in sexual reproduction.
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Card 2


what is double circulation


heart - lungs - heart - body - heart

Card 3


what are blood vessels made up of


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Card 4


cells all animals have


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Card 5


cells all plants ALSO HAVE


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