Biology

List the structures which are found in both animal and plant cells.
Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes.
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Give three features of a plant or algal cell which are not found in animal cells.
Chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole filled with sap.
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Where do most chemical reactions take place in the cell?
Cytoplasm is where many chemical reactions take place.
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Name the organs in the human digestive system
Pancreas and salivary glands, stomach, liver, small intestine, large intestine.
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What chemical produced by the liver aids digestion.
The liver produces bile.
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Give two differences between a plant leaf cells and a yeast cell.
Yeast cells is a single celled organism, A plant leaf cell includes mitochondria and ribosomes.
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When and in which direction, will diffusion take place in solutions and in gases?
Diffusion is the spreading out of particles of from an area of high concentration to low concertration. The net movement into or out of cells depends on the concentration of the particles on each side of the cell membrane.
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What is it meant by the term 'differentiation of cells?'
The process by which a cell becomes specialized in order to perform a specific function, as in the case of a liver cell, a blood cell, or a neuron. There are more than 250 general types of cells in the human body.
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How is a leaf cell adapted to carry out photosynthesis?
Mesophyll tissue which can photosynthesis. Chloroplasts contains chlorophyll to photosynthesis, the chloroplasts absorb light energy to make food (glucose).
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Describe what happens to the food when it passes through the digestive system?
Food is digested in the mouth, stomach and small intestine. Digested food is absorbed into the bloodstream in the small intestine. Excess water is absorbed back into the body in the large intestine. Undigested food passes out of the **** as faeces.
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What tissues in the stomach help digestion?
Muscular tissue to churn the stomach contents. Glandular tissue to produce digestive juices. Epithelial tissue to cover the outside and inside of the stomach.
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What are the 3 plant tissues?
Epidermal tissue which covers the plant. Mesophyll tissue which can photosynthesis. Xylem and phloem tissue which transports water through the plant from the roots (xylem) and carries the glucose to the growing tissues (phloem).
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Where does the energy for photosynthesis come from?
Sunlight energy or artifical energy can be used.
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What are the 3 limiting factors?
Light, temperature, carbon dioxide levels.
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Why do enzyme reactions slow down?
The protein/enzyme changes shape and will stop working.
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Name three substances used for storage in plants.
Starch, fats and oils.
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Which two factors can alter the shape of an enzyme?
Temperature and pH.
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Where is amylase produced?
Salivary glands, pancreas and the small intestine.
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What are the products of lipid (fat) digestion?
Fatty acids and glycerol.
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Which acid is produced by the stomach?
Hydrochloric acid.
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What is the function of bile?
Bile neutrilises acid from the stomach when food passes into the small intestine.
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Why are proteases used in baby foods?
The protease pre-digests protein so the baby can absorb it more easily.
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Give types of reactions controlled by enzymes in the cells.
Builds large molecules from small molecules, changes one molecule into another, breaks down large molecules into smaller molecules.
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Why does increasing the temperature increase the rate of reaction?
The molecules have more energy so they move around faster and collide more often and more vigorously so there are more frequent collisions in a given time.
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Give one advantage and one disadvantage of using enzymes in industry.
Advantage: less energy or expensive equipment is needed because the reactions can take place and normal temperature and pressure. Disadvantage: expensive , denatured at high temperatures.
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Why do biological washing powders work more efficiently than non-biological powders?
The enzymes speed up the digestion of stains from food, blood and grass, plus lower temperature can be used in washing machines.
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What are Enzymes?
Biological catalysts.
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What is it meant my denatured?
Increasing the temperature to 60°C will cause a permanent change to the shape of the active site. This is why enzymes stop working when they are heated. We say they have become denatured.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give three features of a plant or algal cell which are not found in animal cells.

Back

Chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole filled with sap.

Card 3

Front

Where do most chemical reactions take place in the cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name the organs in the human digestive system

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What chemical produced by the liver aids digestion.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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