Biology

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What are enzymes?
Enzymes are biological catalysts - catalysts are substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions without being used up. Enzymes are also proteins that are folded into complex shapes that allow smaller molecules to fit into them.
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What is denaturing?
If the shape of the enzyme changes, its active site may no longer work. We say the enzyme has been denatured.They can be denatured by high temperatures or extremes of pH. Note that it is wrong to say the enzyme has been killed.
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What is respiration?
respiration is a chemical process in which energy is released from food substances, such as glucose - a sugar.
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Equation for aerobic respiration?
glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ energy)
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What is a depresasant?
Slows down nerve and brain activity. Examples are Alcohol and solvents
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What is a Hallucinogen?
Alters what we see and hear, examples are LSD
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What is a Painkiller?
Blocks nerve impulses, examples are Aspirin and paracetamol
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What is a Performance enhancer
Improves muscle development, examples are Anabolic steroids
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what is a stimulant?
Increases nerve and brain activity, examples are Nicotine, caffeine, ecstasy
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How does a stimulant affect the synapse?
stimulants cause more neurotransmitter molecules to diffuse across the synapse
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How does a depresant affect the synapse?
depressants stop the next neurone sending nerve impulses. They bind to the receptor molecules the next neurone that needs to respond to the neurotransmitter molecules.
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What is a blind trial?
blind trials – the volunteers do not know which group they are in but the researchers do
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What is a double-blind trial?
double-blind trials – neither the volunteers nor the researchers know which group the volunteers are in until the end of the trial
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How does Carbon Monoxide affect the body?
Carbon monoxide combines with the haemoglobin in red blood cells and so reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen. This puts extra strain on the circulatory system, and can cause an increased risk of heart disease and strokes.
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What are short term effects of alcohol?
Sleepiness and impaired judgement, balance and muscle control. This leads to blurred vision and slurred speech.
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What are Long term effects of alcohol?
Damage to the liver and brain. Alcohol damages the liver and, over time, this leads to cirrhosis.
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Card 2

Front

What is denaturing?

Back

If the shape of the enzyme changes, its active site may no longer work. We say the enzyme has been denatured.They can be denatured by high temperatures or extremes of pH. Note that it is wrong to say the enzyme has been killed.

Card 3

Front

What is respiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Equation for aerobic respiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a depresasant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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