biology 3

What is coronary heart disease?
When the coronary arteries that supply the blood to the muscle of the heart get blocked by layers of fatty materials building up
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What does coronary heart disease cause in terms of arteries?
It causes the arteries to get narrow so blood flow is restricted and theres a lack of oxygen to the heart muscle - this can result in a heart attack
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What are stents and why are they used?
Stents are tubes that are inserted inside arteries.They keep them open making sure blood can pass through to the heart muscles.This keeps the heart beating and the person alive
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What do stents lower?
Stents are a way of lowering the risk of a heart attack for people with coronary heart disease.
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Positives of stents
effective for a long time and the recovery time is relatively quick
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negatives of stents
risk of complications during the operation (e.g.:heart attack) and a risk of infection from surgery.Also,theres a risk of patients developing a blood clot near the stent this is called thrombosis
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What is cholesterol?
Cholesterol is an essential lipid that your body produces and needs to function properly.However too much can cause health problems
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What may happen if you have too much cholesterol?
Can cause fatty deposits to form inside arteries which can lead to coronary heart disease
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What are statins?
Statins are drugs that can reduce the amount of bad cholesterol present in the bloodstream.This slows down the rate of fatty deposits forming
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Advantages of statins
reduces risk of strokes, coronary heart disease and heart attacks.Statins can increase the amount of 'good' cholesterol in your bloodstream.studies show they could prevent you from getting other diseases
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Disadvantages of statins
long term drug that music be taken regularly (could forget),have negative side effects like kidney failure, liver damage and memory loss.The effect of them isn't instant as it takes time for them to kick in.
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What is an artificial heart?
Mechanical devices that pump blood for a person whose own heart has failed.They are usually a temporary fix until a suitable donor is found.but sometimes they're used as a permanent fix.
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advantages of artificial hearts
less likely to be rejected by the bodies immune system as the they are made out of metals or plastics so the body doesn't recognise them as 'foreign' and attack them
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disadvantages of artificial hearts
surgery could lead to bleeding and infection,They dont work as well as natural ones and the motor may fail.Blood doesn't flow smoothly meaning it could cause blood clots and strokes.Patient has to take blood thinning drugs
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How can the valves in the heart become damaged?
By heart attacks,infection and old age
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What could valve damage cause?
causes valve tissue to stiffen so it won't open up properly. or it may become leaky allowing blood to flow in both directions so it won't circulate as effectively as normal
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How can severe valve damage be treated?
by replacing the valve with a biological valve from other humans or mammals. or they can be man made (mechanical valves)
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What is a communicable disease?
spread from person to person or between animals and people.Theyre contagious/infectious diseases.They are caused by things like bacteria, viruses,fungi and parasites.eg: measles and malaria
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What is a non - communicable disease?
Cannot spread between people.Last for a long time and get worse slowly.eg: asthma, cancer and coronary heart disease
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What factors could affect your health?
stress, obesity,diet,life situation
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What are some risk factors that could affect diseases directly?
smoking, drinking,exposure to radiation, obesity(type 2 diabetes)
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What is cancer?
uncontrolled growth and division as a result of changes that occur to the cells that result in the formation of a tumour
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What is a benign tumour?
where the tumour grows until theres no more room.the tumour stays in one place and isn't usually dangerous or cancerous.
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What is a malignant tumour?
Where a tumour grows and spreads to neighbouring healthy tissues.The cells break off and travel through the bloodstream.They form secondary tumours with healthy tissues - they are fatal cancers
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Risk factors of cancer - associated with lifestyle
smoking, obesity,UV exposure and viral infection
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Risk factors of cancer - associated with genetics
you can inherit faulty genes/ inherit gene mutations
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State the 6 plant cell tissues
epidermal,palisade mesophyll,spongy mesophyll, xylem,phloem and meristem
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Job of the epidermal tissue
Covers the entire plant
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Job of the palisade mesophyll tissue
part of the leaf where most photosynthesis takes place
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Job of the spongy mesophyll tissue
in the leaf, contains big air spaces to allow gases to diffuse in and out of cells
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Job of xylem and phloem
they transport things like water, mineral ions and food around the plant
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Job of the meristem tissue
found at the growing tips of the shoots and roots and is able to differentiate into lots of different types of plant cell allowing the plant to grow
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What are the epidermal tissues covered in and what does this help?
Covered in a waxy cuticle which helps to reduce water loss by evaporation
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Why is the upper epidermis transparent?
so that light can pass through it to the palisade layer
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Why does the palisade layer have a lot of chloroplasts?
because its nearer the top of the leaf near the light for photosynthesis
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What do xylem and phloem form a network of? Why do they need this?
Form a network of vascular bundles, which deliver water and other nutrients to the entire leaf and take away the glucose produced by photosynthesis
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What is the process in which the ***** tubes transport food? What is the tube called?
Translocation. Phloem
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What is translocation?
phloem tubes are made up of elongated living cells with small pores in the end walls to allow cell sap to flow through.They transport food substances for immediate use or for storage.This transport goes in both directions
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What is the process in which the **** tubes take water up? What is the name of this tube?
Transpiration stream,Xylem
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What is the process in which xylem tubes take water up? explain
Xylem is made of dead cells joined end to end its no end walls between them and a hole down the middle.Theyre strengthened with a material called lignin.They carry water and mineral ions from the roots to the stem and leaves.
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What causes transpiration?
The evaporation and diffusion of water from a plants surface
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What does the evaporation in the process of transpiration cause?
The evaporation causes a slight shortage of water in the leaf and so more water is drawn up from the rest of the plant through the xylem vessels to replace it
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What 4 things affect transpiration rate?
Light intensity,temperature,air flow and humidity
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How are guard cells adapted to open and close stomata?
kidney shape for opening and closing.When the plants water is full so is the guard cells so it goes plump and turgid and the tomato opens so gases can be exchanged for photosynthesis .When the plant is short of water the stomata close so water vapour
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How are guard cells adapted to open and close stomata? 2
doesn't escape.thin outer walls and thickened inner walls which make opening and closing work.Sensitive to light and close at night to save water without losing out on photosynthesis .
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does coronary heart disease cause in terms of arteries?

Back

It causes the arteries to get narrow so blood flow is restricted and theres a lack of oxygen to the heart muscle - this can result in a heart attack

Card 3

Front

What are stents and why are they used?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do stents lower?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Positives of stents

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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