Biology 2

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  • Created by: millyag
  • Created on: 24-03-16 15:30
Do white blood cells make antibodies or antigens?
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What are antigens?
A toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
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What does immunisation involve? Why?
Injecting dead or inactive microorganisms. Because then your body produces antibodies to attack and also produces memory cells.
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What are memory cells?
If the same type of microorganism appears again the memory cells will remember them so that they can be quickly killed off.
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How do you prevent epidemics?
Vaccinate a large proportion of the population so that it won't spread quickly and less people will get infected.
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What are the effects of people after vaccinations?
1 in 4 children after the meningitis vaccination develop a painful swelling at the site of the injection?
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What do genetic differences cause during vaccinations?
It means that people will react differently, anesthetics are drugs that stop people feeling pain, genetic differences mean the length of time it works for each person is different.
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Where are new drugs first tested?
In a laboratory.
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How are new drugs often developed?
Using human cells grown in the lab s that its possible to measure the effect on real human cells.
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What must the drug be testes on first before humans? Why?
2 different species of mammals. To give early indications to what the drug will do to the human.
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What can stop the drug going to the humans?
Drugs causing serious problems to the animals or has no effect.
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Why is the drug first tested on healthy volunteers?
To check for harmful side effects, if tested on sick people the results could be worse because they are more vulnerable to any damage.
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When can the drug be tested on a sick volunteers?
fter it is tested on a healthy volunteer and has no faults.
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What are placebos? Why are they used?
Fake treatments that don't give the drug to the patient, this is so that 2 groups can be compared.
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What are blind-trials?
Patients don't know if they've been given the real drug or the placebo but the doctor does.
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What are double-blind-trails?
Patients or doctor doesn't know if they have been given the real drug pr the placebo.
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What are open-label trials?
Patients and octors know what the patient is getting.
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What are antimicrobials?
Chemicals that inhibit the growth of microorganisms or kill them.
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What are antimicrobials useful for?
Clearing up infections that your immune system is having trouble with.
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What are antibiotics?
A type of antimicrobial that kill bacteria.
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Do antibiotics kill viruses?
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How do some microorganisms change their characteristics?
They develop mutations.
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What happens if some microorganisms resist microbials?
They can reproduce to make more microorganism that are resistant.
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What happens if antibiotics are used a lot in your body?
The problem of antibiotic resistance increases.
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Do you need to take all antibiotics prescribed?
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What happens if someone stops taking their antibiotics before they are meant to?
It increases the risk of antibiotic resistant bacteria emerging.
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How do microorganisms reproduce and how long does it take?
They make copies of themselves and they double every 30 minutes.
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What do microorganisms damage?
The body, the bodies cells.
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What are toxins?
Poisons that microorganisms produce that can cause fever or inflammation.
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How do bacteria reproduce? What do they need to be able to do it?
By making copies of themselves. They need a source of nutrients for energy to do. ( warm, moist conditions ).
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Bacteria can quickly become a large ... inside your body.
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What do receptors in white blood cells that attack specific microorganisms certain antigens recognise?
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What are antibodies?
Proteins that are specific to a particular antigen.
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What do antibodies do?
Mark the microorganisms so other white blood cells can engulf and digest then.
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What are the tubes called that blood is circulated around the body in?
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What is carried to the body cells?
Oxygen and nutrients.
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What is carried away from the body cells?
Waste such as carbon dioxide.
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What does the right side of the heart pump?
Deoxygenated blood to the lungs to collect oxygen and remove carbon dioxide.
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What does the left side of the heart pump?
Oxygenated blood around the body continually.
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How many arteries is the blood supplied to the heart by?
2 coronary arteries.
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Arteries carry blood....... the heart to the......
Away from. Body cells.
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Why do the artery walls have to be strong and elastic?
The blood comes out at high pressure.
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Veins carry blood......the heart.
Back to.
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Why is there no need for thick walls in veins?
The blood is at a low pressure.
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What does the big lumen do?
Help blood flow easier.
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What do valves help?
Blood flow in the right direction.
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What are capillaries?
Branches of arteries that are tiny.
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Why do capillaries carry blood close to the cells?
To exchange substances.
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What can substances diffuse in and out of?
Permeable walls.
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Why are the walls of capillaries only 1 cell thick?
It increases
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What does cholesterol do?
Make fatty deposits.
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Fatty deposits increases..?
The risk of heart disease.
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What does a diet in high salt increase?
Heart disease.
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What does carbon monoxide and nicotine increase?
The risk of heart disease.
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What does carbon monoxide reduce?
The amount of oxygen the blood can transport.
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What happens if a heart doesn't receive enough oxygen?
Leads to a heart attack.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are antigens?


A toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.

Card 3


What does immunisation involve? Why?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are memory cells?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How do you prevent epidemics?


Preview of the front of card 5
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This is B1 not B2 :/

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