Biology 2

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  • Created by: pheegrace
  • Created on: 04-02-16 17:29
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon Dioxide + Water --sunlight/chlorophyll--> Glucose + Oxygen
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What do chloroplasts contain and what does it do?
Chlorophyll, absorbs sunlight and uses its energy to change CO2 and H2O into glucose with oxygen as a by product
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What affects the rate of photosynthesis?
Light intensity, CO2 volume, Temperature
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How do plants use glucose?
Respiration, Make cell walls, Proteins, In seeds, Starch
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What is in the leaves of a plant and what are they for?
Mesophyll tissue = photosynthesis, Xylem&Phloem = transportation of food and water, Epidermal Tissue = covers plant
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What affects where an organism is found?
Temperature, Water, Oxygen, CO2, Nutrients, Light
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Whats is in an animal cell?
Nucleus, Cyptoplasm, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria, Ribosomes
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What is in a plant cell?
Nucleus, Cyptoplasm, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Cell Wall, Permanent Vacuole, Chloroplasts
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What is in a bacteria cell?
Cell Wall, Cyptoplasm, Genetic Material(floats), Cell Membrane
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What is in yeast?
Nucleus, Cyptoplasm, Cell Membrane, Cell Wall
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What does the nucleus do?
Contains the genetic material that controls the activities of the cell
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What does the cyptoplasm do?
Gel-like and where most chemical reactions happen. Contains enzymes that control the chemical reactions.
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What does the cell membrane do?
Holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out
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What does the mitochondria do?
Where most respiration reactions take place.
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What do the ribosomes do?
These are where proteins are made
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What does the cell wall do?
Contains cell sap to support and strengthen cell
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What does the permanent vacuole contain?
Contains cell sap (weak sugar and salt solution)
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What do the chloroplasts do?
Where photosynthesis occurs which makes food for plant. Contain chlorophyll.
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What is diffusion?
high to low concentration
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What is tissue?
group of similar cells
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What is an organ?
group of different tissues
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What is an organ system?
group of organs
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What is a palisade leaf cell?
Has chloroplasts(photosynthesis), Big SA - absorb CO2, Thin - pack loads in top of leaf
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What is a guard cell?
fill with water = open stomata for gas exchange for photosynthesis / not much water = close stomata to stop water vapour escaping ..... close at night to save water
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What is an egg cell?
DNA, nourishes and feeds embryo, membrane changes when fertilised so no more sperm can get in
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What is a sperm cell?
Gets male DNA to female DNA, longtail and streamline - swim, lots mitochondria - energy, enzymes - get through egg membrane
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What is meiosis?
produces cells which have half normal number of chromosomes
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What happens in meiosis?
DNA duplicates to form pairs of chromosomes which line up>pairs pulled apart>pulled in half by cell fibres>4 gametes with single set of chromosomes produced
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What is mitosis?
Cell reproduces itself by splitting to form 2 identical offspring
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What happens in mitosis?
DNA spread out in long string>DNA duplicates to form chromosomes>chromosomes line up in middle and cell fibres pull them apart>membrane forms around each half to form nucleus>cytoplasm divides to form 2 identical gametes
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What happens in exercise?
Muscle cells use oxygen to release energy from glucose so breath rate increases and so does speed heart pumps blood at
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Where is glucose stored?
Glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver or muscle.During excersise some glycogen turned into glucose for energy
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What is anaerobic respiration?
glucose->energy+lactic acid, incomplete breakdown of glucose due to lack of oxygen, results in oxygen debt meaning you breath harder to oxidise lactic acid
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What is aerobic respiration?
glucose+oxygen->CO2+water+energy, mostly in mitochondria
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What is respiration and what can its product be used for?
releasing energy from glucose, goes on in every cell, glucose used to: build large molecules from small, contract muscles, keep constant body temp, build sugar, nitrates & nutrients into amino acid then protein
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What are enzymes?
Biological catalyst that speeds up reaction without being changed/used up, denature above 45 degrees
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What are enzymes used for?
Biological detergent - protein&fat digesting enzymes, Baby food - protein digesting enzyme, Starch syrup to sugar syrup - carb digesting enzyme, Glucose syrup to fructose syrup - isomerase enzyme
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Positives and negatives of enzymes?
Pos = specific(only catalyse 1 reaction), low temp cost energy, work for long time, enviro friendly(no pollution) Neg = allergies, denature by small temp increase, tightly controlled conditions, contamination, can affect reaction
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What happens in the stomach?
produce protease and hydrochloric acid to kill bacteria and give right ph for enzyme
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What happens in the pancreas?
Produce protease, amylase, lipase and releases these to small intestine
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What do salivary glands do?
produce amylase in saliva
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What happens in the liver?
produces bile to neutralise stomach acid and emulsify fats
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What happens in the gall bladder?
Bile stored before released in small intestine
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What happens in large intestine?
Excess water is absorbed from food
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What happens in the rectum?
faeces stored before exit
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What happens in the small intestine?
produce protease, amylase, lipase. digested food absorbed out digestive system to blood
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How are big molecules broken into smaller ones?
Starch-amylase->maltose, Proteins-protease->amino acids, Lipid-lipase->glycerol and fatty acids
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How are rocks formed from fossils?
Gradual replacement by minerals, casts and impressions, preservation where no decay happens
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What are stem cells?
They can be turned into any cell and can be used to replace faulty cells causing disease.
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What chromosomes does a male have?
XY
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What chromosomes does a female have?
XX
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What did Mendel experiment with?
Pea plants
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What is an allele?
a different version of the same gene
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What does homozygous mean?
2 alleles for a gene are the same (bb)
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What does heterozygous mean?
2 alleles for a gene are different (Bb)
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Whats a dominant allele?
The one whos characteristics are shown (B)
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Whats a recessive allele?
The one whos characteristics arent shown (b)
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Whats a genotype?
The alleles you have
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Whats a phenotype?
The actual characteristics you have
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What is cystic fibrosis?
A thick mucus in the air passage and pancreas. Cause by recessive allele so parents must be either a carrier or sufferer. Ff = carrier. ff = sufferer
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What is polydactyly?
Extra fingers or toes. Caused by a dominant allele so can be inherited by one parent being a sufferer. Cant be a carrier. Dd = sufferer. dd = normal
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What is speciation?
Development of a new species when populations become so different they can do longer produce fertile offspring.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do chloroplasts contain and what does it do?

Back

Chlorophyll, absorbs sunlight and uses its energy to change CO2 and H2O into glucose with oxygen as a by product

Card 3

Front

What affects the rate of photosynthesis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do plants use glucose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is in the leaves of a plant and what are they for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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